Project description:Rhizosphere bacterial communities of kodo millet plant was analyzed from a large metagenome sequence dataset. Plant rhizosphere samples of kodo millet was collected in replicates and the metagenomic sequence data were obtained through shotgun sequencing. Overall sequences in the dataset were 476,649 comprising total read length of 179,349,372 base pairs. Taxonomic data analysis led to characterize ?-diversity of 107 species. Dominance of actinobacteria followed by unclassified sequences (derived from Bacteria) was recorded. Raw data along with the analysis result is publicly available from the MG-RAST server with ID mgm4761530.3.
Project description:Application of the plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) confirmed its capability to promote plant growth and health by reducing disease severity (DS) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore this strain is commercially applied as an eco-friendly plant protective agent. It is able to produce cyclic lipopeptides (CLP) and polyketides featuring antifungal and antibacterial properties. Production of these secondary metabolites led to the question of a possible impact of strain FZB42 on the composition of microbial rhizosphere communities after its application. Rating of DS and lettuce growth during a field trial confirmed the positive impact of strain FZB42 on the health of the host plant. To verify B. amyloliquefaciens as an environmentally compatible plant protective agent, its effect on the indigenous rhizosphere community was analyzed by metagenome sequencing. Rhizosphere microbial communities of lettuce treated with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and non-treated plants were profiled by high-throughput metagenome sequencing of whole community DNA. Fragment recruitments of metagenome sequence reads on the genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 proved the presence of the strain in the rhizosphere over 5 weeks of the field trial. Comparison of taxonomic community profiles only revealed marginal changes after application of strain FZB42. The orders Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales were most abundant in all samples. Depending on plant age a general shift within the composition of the microbial communities that was independent of the application of strain FZB42 was observed. In addition to the taxonomic profiling, functional analysis of annotated sequences revealed no major differences between samples regarding application of the inoculant strain.
Project description:Metal resistance determinants have traditionally been found in cultivated bacteria. To search for genes involved in nickel resistance, we analyzed the bacterial community of the rhizosphere of Erica andevalensis, an endemic heather which grows at the banks of the Tinto River, a naturally metal-enriched and extremely acidic environment in southwestern Spain. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of rhizosphere DNA revealed the presence of members of five phylogenetic groups of Bacteria and the two main groups of Archaea mostly associated with sites impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). The diversity observed and the presence of heavy metals in the rhizosphere led us to construct and screen five different metagenomic libraries hosted in Escherichia coli for searching novel nickel resistance determinants. A total of 13 positive clones were detected and analyzed. Insights about their possible mechanisms of resistance were obtained from cellular nickel content and sequence similarities. Two clones encoded putative ABC transporter components, and a novel mechanism of metal efflux is suggested. In addition, a nickel hyperaccumulation mechanism is proposed for a clone encoding a serine O-acetyltransferase. Five clones encoded proteins similar to well-characterized proteins but not previously reported to be related to nickel resistance, and the remaining six clones encoded hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins of uncertain functions. This is the first report documenting nickel resistance genes recovered from the metagenome of an AMD environment.
Project description:Cyclopia spp., commonly referred to as honeybush due to the honey scented flowers, are indigenous legumes mainly growing in the Cape Floristic Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. Dozens of species, including Cyclopia intermedia, C. subternata, C. plicata, C. genistoides are used to make the well-known, popular and widely enjoyed beverage called 'honeybush tea'. In the past, most rhizosphere microbial studies associated with Cyclopia spp. focused mainly on the taxonomy and diversity of the root nodule associated symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia. The work presented here is the first report on the microbial and functional diversity of rhizosphere microbiome associated with Cyclopia intermedia. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing was performed on the rhizosphere soil sample collected from this Cyclopia sp. using illumina Hiseq 2500 platform which resulted in an ?- diversity of 312 species. Analysis of the metagenome sequence using the Metagenomic analysis server (MG-RAST) indicated that bacteria constitute the dominant domain followed by Eukaryota, Archaea and other sequences derived from fungi and viruses. Functional diversity of the metagenome based on analysis using the Cluster Orthologous Group (COG) method showed metabolism as the most important function in the community. The raw sequence data is uploaded in FASTQ format on MG-RAST server with ID mgm4855911.3 which can be accessed at http://www.mg-rast.org/linkin.cgi?project=mgp90368. The data on the microbial and functional diversity of the rhizosphere community of Cyclopia intermedia generates a baseline information about the microbial ecology of this indigenous legume. The microbial profile data can also be used as indicators of soil health characteristic of the rhizosphere of this important legume.
Project description:Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genome sequences. Results of the read mapping provided the most support for Wolbachia and an enteric bacterium most similar to Salmonella. Wolbachia-derived reads were extracted using the complete genome sequences for four Wolbachia strains. Reads were assembled into a draft genome sequence, and the annotation assessed for the presence of features potentially involved in host interaction. Genome alignment with the complete sequences reveals membership of Wolbachia wDi in supergroup B, further supported by phylogenetic analysis of FtsZ. FtsZ and Wsp phylogenies additionally indicate that the Wolbachia strain in the Florida D. citri isolate falls into a sub-clade of supergroup B, distinct from Wolbachia present in Chinese D. citri isolates, supporting the hypothesis that the D. citri introduced into Florida did not originate from China.
Project description:Background: The soil environment is responsible for sustaining most terrestrial plant life on earth, yet we know surprisingly little about the important functions carried out by diverse microbial communities in soil. Soil microbes that inhabit the channels of decaying root systems, the detritusphere, are likely to be essential for plant growth and health, as these channels are the preferred locations of new root growth. Understanding the microbial metagenome of the detritusphere and how it responds to agricultural management such as crop rotations and soil tillage will be vital for improving global food production. Methods: The rhizosphere soils of wheat and chickpea growing under + and - decaying root were collected for metagenomics sequencing. A gene catalogue was established by de novo assembling metagenomic sequencing. Genes abundance was compared between bulk soil and rhizosphere soils under different treatments. Conclusions: The study describes the diversity and functional capacity of a high-quality soil microbial metagenome. The results demonstrate the contribution of the microbiome from decaying root in determining the metagenome of developing root systems, which is fundamental to plant growth, since roots preferentially inhabit previous root channels. Modifications in root microbial function through soil management, can ultimately govern plant health, productivity and food security. Overall design: Totally 18 samples were analysed, including the rhizosphere soils of wheat and chickpea growing under + and - decaying root, soils attached on the decaying root, and bulk soil with three replicates.
Project description:Mineral phosphate solubilization (MPS) microorganisms are important for their provision of orthophosphate anions for plant growth promotion activity in soil. In this study, we applied a functional metagenomic approach to identify this trait directly from the microbiome in barley rhizosphere soil that had not received P fertilizer over a 15-year period. A fosmid system was used to clone the metagenome of which 18,000 clones (~666 Mb of DNA) was screened for MPS. Functional assays and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis recognized gluconic acid production and MPS activity in the range 24.8-77.1 mmol/L and 27.6-38.16 μg/mL, respectively, when screened in an Escherichia coli host (at frequency of one MPS-positive clone hit per 114 Mb DNA tested). The MPS clones (with average insert size of ~37 kb) were analysed by 454 Roche sequencing and annotated. A number of genes/operons with homology to Phosphorous (P) uptake, regulatory and solubilization mechanisms were identified, linking the MPS function to the uncultivated microbiome present in barley rhizosphere soil.
Project description:The rhizosphere harbors one of the most complex, diverse, and active plant-associated microbial communities. This community can be recruited by the plant host to either supply it with nutrients or to help in the survival under stressful conditions. Although selection for the rhizosphere community is evident, the specific bacterial traits that make them able to colonize this environment are still poorly understood. Thus, here we used a combination of community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing (coupled with in silico analysis and metagenome prediction), to get insights on bacterial features and processes involved in rhizosphere colonization of sugarcane. CLPP revealed a higher metabolic activity in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, and suggested that D-galacturonic acid plays a role in bacterial selection by the plant roots (supported by results of metagenome prediction). Quantification of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the higher abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere. Sequence analysis showed that of the 252 classified families sampled, 24 were significantly more abundant in the bulk soil and 29 were more abundant in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, metagenomes predicted from the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant higher abundance of predicted genes associated with biofilm formation and with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) processes. In sum, this study identified major bacterial groups and their potential abilities to occupy the sugarcane rhizosphere, and indicated that polygalacturonase activity and HGT events may be important features for rhizosphere colonization.
Project description:Wheat is the major crop in India and like other crops also subjected to influence by microbial communities of the rhizospheric region which are extremely diverse and undoubtedly play a central role in the nutrient cycle, plant productivity and growth promotion. In order to know how changes in the rhizospheric microbial community can make an impact on overall crop function, wheat rhizospheric soil samples from Ghazipur (25.913824 N 83.529715 E) regions of Eastern Uttar Pradesh (Eastern Indogangatic Plain), were collected and analyzed. Full length 16S rRNA gene amplification sequencing was performed to reveal the bacterial community in wheat rhizosphere. A total of 51,909 read were analyzed, out of that only 44,125 reads were classified and 7784 were unclassified using oxford nanopore sequencing and EPI2ME data analysis platform. MinION oxford nanopore sequencing uncovered that dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (68%), followed by firmicutes (13%), bacteroidetes (3%), actinobacteria (3%) and acidobacteria (3%). The data is available at the NCBI - Sequence Read Archive (SRA) with accession number: SRX5275271.
Project description:The worldwide use of glyphosate has dramatically increased, but also has been raising concern over its impact on mineral nutrition, plant pathogen, and soil microbiota. To date, the bulk of previous studies still have shown different results on the effect of glyphosate application on soil rhizosphere microbial communities.This study aimed to clarify whether glyphosate has impact on nitrogen-fixation, pathogen or disease suppression, and rhizosphere microbial community of a soybean EPSPS-transgenic line ZUTS31 in one growth season.Comparative analysis of the soil rhizosphere microbial communities was performed by 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing and shotgun metagenome sequencing analysis between the soybean line ZUTS31 foliar sprayed with diluted glyphosate solution and those sprayed with water only in seed-filling stage.There were no significant differences of alpha diversity but with small and insignificant difference of beta diversity of soybean rhizosphere bacteria after glyphosate treatment. The significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms were cellular, metabolic, and single-organism of biological process together with binding, catalytic activity of molecular function. The hits and gene abundances of some functional genes being involved in Plant Growth-Promoting Traits (PGPT), especially most of nitrogen fixation genes, significantly decreased in the rhizosphere after glyphosate treatment.Our present study indicated that the formulation of glyphosate-isopropylamine salt did not significantly affect the alpha and beta diversity of the rhizobacterial community of the soybean line ZUTS31, whereas it significantly influenced some functional genes involved in PGPT in the rhizosphere during the single growth season.