Project description:Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of β-1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources.
Project description:Methylglucuronoarabinoxylan (MeGAXn) from agricultural residues and energy crops is a significant yet underutilized biomass resource for production of biofuels and chemicals. Mild thermochemical pretreatment of bagasse yields MeGAXn requiring saccharifying enzymes for conversion to fermentable sugars. A xylanolytic bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, produces an extracellular cell-associated GH10 endoxylanse (XynA1) which efficiently depolymerizes methylglucuronoxylan (MeGXn) from hardwoods coupled with assimilation of oligosaccharides for further processing by intracellular GH67 α-glucuronidase, GH10 endoxylanase, and GH43 β-xylosidase. This process has been ascribed to genes that comprise a xylan utilization regulon that encodes XynA1 and includes a gene cluster encoding transcriptional regulators, ABC transporters, and intracellular enzymes that convert assimilated oligosaccharides to fermentable sugars. Here we show that Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 utilized MeGAXn without accumulation of oligosaccharides in the medium. The Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 growth rate on MeGAXn was 3.1-fold greater than that on oligosaccharides generated from MeGAXn by XynA1. Candidate genes encoding GH51 arabinofuranosidases with potential roles were identified. Following growth on MeGAXn, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR identified a cluster of genes encoding a GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and transcriptional regulators which were coordinately expressed along with the genes comprising the xylan utilization regulon. The action of XynA1 on MeGAXn generated arabinoxylobiose, arabinoxylotriose, xylobiose, xylotriose, and methylglucuronoxylotriose. Recombinant AbfB processed arabinoxylooligosaccharides to xylooligosaccharides and arabinose. MeGAXn processing by Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 may be achieved by extracellular depolymerization by XynA1 coupled to assimilation of oligosaccharides and further processing by intracellular enzymes, including AbfB. Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 provides a GH10/GH67 system complemented with genes encoding intracellular GH51 arabinofuranosidases for efficient utilization of MeGAXn.
Project description:Environmental and economic factors predicate the need for efficient processing of renewable sources of fuels and chemicals. To fulfill this need, microbial biocatalysts must be developed to efficiently process the hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulosic biomass for fermentation of pentoses. The predominance of methylglucuronoxylan (MeGAXn), a beta-1,4 xylan in which 10% to 20% of the xylose residues are substituted with alpha-1,2-4-O-methylglucuronate residues, in hemicellulose fractions of hardwood and crop residues has made this a target for processing and fermentation. A Paenibacillus sp. (strain JDR-2) has been isolated and characterized for its ability to efficiently utilize MeGAXn. A modular xylanase (XynA1) of glycosyl hydrolase family 10 (GH 10) was identified through DNA sequence analysis that consists of a triplicate family 22 carbohydrate binding module followed by a GH 10 catalytic domain followed by a single family 9 carbohydrate binding module and concluding with C-terminal triplicate surface layer homology (SLH) domains. Immunodetection of the catalytic domain of XynA1 (XynA1 CD) indicates that the enzyme is associated with the cell wall fraction, supporting an anchoring role for the SLH modules. With MeGAXn as substrate, XynA1 CD generated xylobiose and aldotetrauronate (MeGAX3) as predominant products. The inability to detect depolymerization products in medium during exponential growth of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 on MeGAXn, as well as decreased growth rate and yield with XynA1 CD-generated xylooligosaccharides and aldouronates as substrates, indicates that XynA1 catalyzes a depolymerization process coupled to product assimilation. This depolymerization/assimilation system may be utilized for development of biocatalysts to efficiently convert MeGAXn to alternative fuels and biobased products.
Project description:Direct bacterial conversion of the hemicellulose fraction of hardwoods and crop residues to biobased products depends upon extracellular depolymerization of methylglucuronoxylan (MeGAX(n)), followed by assimilation and intracellular conversion of aldouronates and xylooligosaccharides to fermentable xylose. Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium, secretes a multimodular cell-associated GH10 endoxylanase (XynA1) that catalyzes depolymerization of MeGAX(n) and rapidly assimilates the principal products, beta-1,4-xylobiose, beta-1,4-xylotriose, and MeGAX(3), the aldotetrauronate 4-O-methylglucuronosyl-alpha-1,2-xylotriose. Genomic libraries derived from this bacterium have now allowed cloning and sequencing of a unique aldouronate utilization gene cluster comprised of genes encoding signal transduction regulatory proteins, ABC transporter proteins, and the enzymes AguA (GH67 alpha-glucuronidase), XynA2 (GH10 endoxylanase), and XynB (GH43 beta-xylosidase/alpha-arabinofuranosidase). Expression of these genes, as well as xynA1 encoding the secreted GH10 endoxylanase, is induced by growth on MeGAX(n) and repressed by glucose. Sequences in the yesN, lplA, and xynA2 genes within the cluster and in the distal xynA1 gene show significant similarity to catabolite responsive element (cre) defined in Bacillus subtilis for recognition of the catabolite control protein (CcpA) and consequential repression of catabolic regulons. The aldouronate utilization gene cluster in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 operates as a regulon, coregulated with the expression of xynA1, conferring the ability for efficient assimilation and catabolism of the aldouronate product generated by a multimodular cell surface-anchored GH10 endoxylanase. This cluster offers a desirable metabolic potential for bacterial conversion of hemicellulose fractions of hardwood and crop residues to biobased products.
Project description:Xylans, including methylglucuronoxylans (MeGX(n)) and methylglucuronoarabinoxylans (MeGAXn), are the predominant polysaccharidesin hemicellulose fractions of dicots and monocots available for conversion to biofuels and chemicals. Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 (Pjdr2) efficiently depolymerizes MeGX(n) and MeGAX(n) and assimilates the generated oligosaccharides, resulting in efficient saccharification and subsequent metabolism of these polysaccharides. A xylan utilization regulon encoding a cellassociated GH10 (glycoside hydrolase family 10) endoxylanase, transcriptional regulators, ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, an intracellular GH67 -glucuronidase, and other glycoside hydrolases contributes to complete metabolism. This GH10/GH67 system has been proposed to account for preferential utilization of xylans compared to free oligo- and monosaccharides. To identify additional genes contributing to MeGX(n) and MeGAXn utilization, the transcriptome of Pjdr2 has been sequenced following growth on each of these substrates as well as xylose and arabinose. Increased expression of genes with different substrates identified pathways common or unique to the utilization of MeGX(n) or MeGAX(n). Coordinate upregulation of genes comprising the GH10/GH67 xylan utilization regulon is accompanied with upregulation of genes encoding a GH11 endoxylanase and a GH115 -glucuronidase, providing evidence for a novel complementary pathway for processing xylans. Elevated expression of genes encoding a GH43 arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase and an arabinose ABC transporter on MeGAX(n) but not on MeGX(n) supports a process in which arabinose may be removed extracellularly followed by its rapid assimilation.Further development of Pjdr2 for direct conversion of xylans to targeted products or introduction of these systems into fermentative strains of related bacteria may lead to biocatalysts for consolidated bioprocessing of hemicelluloses released from lignocellulose.