Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are key receptors used by DCs to orchestrate responses to pathogens. During infections, the glycan-lectin interactions shape the virus-host interplay and viruses can subvert the function of CLRs to escape antiviral immunity. Recognition of virus/viral components and uptake by CLRs together with subsequent signalling cascades are crucial in initiating and shaping antiviral immunity, and decisive in the outcome of infection. Yet, the interaction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with CLRs remains largely unknown. As HBV hijacks DC subsets and viral antigens harbour glycan motifs, we hypothesised that HBV may subvert DCs through CLR binding.<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated here the pattern of CLR expression on BDCA1<sup>+</sup> cDC2s, BDCA2<sup>+</sup> pDCs and BDCA3<sup>+</sup> cDC1s from both blood and liver of HBV-infected patients and explored the ability of HBsAg to bind DC subsets through specific CLRs.<h4>Results</h4>We highlighted for the first time that the CLR repertoire of circulating and intrahepatic cDC2s, cDC1s and pDCs was perturbed in patients with chronic HBV infection and that some CLR expression levels correlated with plasma HBsAg and HBV DNA levels. We also identified candidate CLR responsible for HBsAg binding to cDCs (CD367/DCIR/CLEC4A, CD32/Fc?RIIA) and pDCs (CD369/DECTIN1/CLEC7A, CD336/NKp44) and demonstrated that HBsAg inhibited DC functions in a CLR- and glycosylation-dependent manner.<h4>Conclusion</h4>HBV may exploit CLR pathways to hijack DC subsets and escape from immune control. Such advances bring insights into the mechanisms by which HBV subverts immunity and pave the way for developing innovative therapeutic strategies to restore an efficient immune control of the infection by manipulating the viral glycan-lectin axis.
Project description:We used microarrays to determine whether cDC1s from the two double KO are bona fide cDC1s, and what are the transcriptional changes within these cDC1s. Overall design: cDC1 were sorted from mouse spleen for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain gene expression signatures for cDC1s from various genotypes.
Project description:CD34+ cord blood hematopoietic progenitors were expanded in vitro as previously described (Balan et al., J Immunol, 2014) and then differentiated on a mixed feeder layer of OP9 cells expressing or not the Notch ligand Delta-like 1, with FLT3-L, TPO and IL-7. At the end of the cultures, single live Lin- HLA-DR+ cells were index sorted in 96-well plates containing lysis buffer, and snap frozen. Four putative cell types were sorted according to their expression patterns of key combinations of cell surface markers: putative pDCs, putative cDC1s, putative pre-cDC2s and putative cDC2s. Single cell RNA-sequencing libraries were subsequently generated for 90 single cells and 6 control wells using an adaptation of Smart-Seq2 (Villani et al., Science, 2017). Cells were sequenced at a depth of 1-3M reads/cell. Overall design: A total of 90 single cells and 6 controls from one culture were processed using a protocol adapted from Smart-Seq2 protocol (Villani et al., Science, 2017), which allows for the generation of full-length single cell cDNA, and sequencing libraries were generated using Illumina Nextera XT DNA library preparation kit. A few samples (10) were profiled but excluded from the processed data since they were either bulk (5) or blank (1) control samples or excluded due to QC (4). Therefore, there are 86 samples included here.
Project description:Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs [pDCs]) develop from pre-pDCs, whereas two lineages of conventional DCs (cDCs; cDC1s and cDC2s) develop from lineage-committed pre-cDCs. Several transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in regulating the development of pDCs (E2-2 and Id2) and cDC1s (Irf8, Id2, and Batf3); however, those required for the early commitment of pre-cDCs toward the cDC2 lineage are unknown. Here, we identify the TF zinc finger E box-binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) to play a crucial role in regulating DC development. Zeb2 was expressed from the pre-pDC and pre-cDC stage onward and highly expressed in mature pDCs and cDC2s. Mice conditionally lacking Zeb2 in CD11c(+) cells had a cell-intrinsic reduction in pDCs and cDC2s, coupled with an increase in cDC1s. Conversely, mice in which CD11c(+) cells overexpressed Zeb2 displayed a reduction in cDC1s. This was accompanied by altered expression of Id2, which was up-regulated in cDC2s and pDCs from conditional knockout mice. Zeb2 chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed Id2 to be a direct target of Zeb2. Thus, we conclude that Zeb2 regulates commitment to both the cDC2 and pDC lineages through repression of Id2.
Project description:The ability to generate large numbers of distinct types of human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro is critical for accelerating our understanding of DC biology and harnessing them clinically. We developed a DC differentiation method from human CD34+ precursors leading to high yields of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and both types of conventional DCs (cDC1s and cDC2s). The identity of the cells generated in vitro and their strong homology to their blood counterparts were demonstrated by phenotypic, functional, and single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses. This culture system revealed a critical role of Notch signaling and GM-CSF for promoting cDC1 generation. Moreover, we discovered a pre-terminal differentiation state for each DC type, characterized by high expression of cell-cycle genes and lack of XCR1 in the case of cDC1. Our culture system will greatly facilitate the simultaneous and comprehensive study of primary, otherwise rare human DC types, including their mutual interactions.
Project description:Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been shown to play a critical role in generating viral immunity and promoting tolerance to suppress antitumor immunity, whether and how pDCs cross-prime CD8 T cells in vivo remain controversial. Using a pDC-targeted vaccine model to deliver antigens specifically to pDCs, we have demonstrated that pDC-targeted vaccination led to strong cross-priming and durable CD8 T cell immunity. Surprisingly, cross-presenting pDCs required conventional DCs (cDCs) to achieve cross-priming in vivo by transferring antigens to cDCs. Taking advantage of an in vitro system where only pDCs had access to antigens, we further demonstrated that cross-presenting pDCs were unable to efficiently prime CD8 T cells by themselves, but conferred antigen-naive cDCs the capability of cross-priming CD8 T cells by transferring antigens to cDCs. Although both cDC1s and cDC2s exhibited similar efficiency in acquiring antigens from pDCs, cDC1s but not cDC2s were required for cross-priming upon pDC-targeted vaccination, suggesting that cDC1s played a critical role in pDC-mediated cross-priming independent of their function in antigen presentation. Antigen transfer from pDCs to cDCs was mediated by previously unreported pDC-derived exosomes (pDCexos), that were also produced by pDCs under various conditions. Importantly, all these pDCexos primed naive antigen-specific CD8 T cells only in the presence of bystander cDCs, similarly to cross-presenting pDCs, thus identifying pDCexo-mediated antigen transfer to cDCs as a mechanism for pDCs to achieve cross-priming. In summary, our data suggest that pDCs employ a unique mechanism of pDCexo-mediated antigen transfer to cDCs for cross-priming.
Project description:Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) play a pivotal role as cytokine-secreting accessory cells in the antimicrobial immune defense. In contrast, the capacity of PDCs to act as antigen-presenting cells in naive T cell priming remains unclear. By studying T cell responses in mice that lack conventional DCs (cDCs), and by the use of a PDC-specific antigen-targeting strategy, we show that PDCs can initiate productive naive CD4(+) T cell responses in lymph nodes, but not in the spleen. PDC-triggered CD4(+) T cell responses differed from cDC-driven responses in that they were not associated with concomitant CD8(+) T cell priming. Our results establish PDCs as a bona fide DC subset that initiates unique CD4(+) Th cell-dominated primary immune responses.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are viewed as safe, readily available and promising adult stem cells, which are currently used in several clinical trials. Additionally, their soluble-factor secretion and multi-lineage differentiation capacities place MSCs in the forefront of stem cell types with expected near-future clinical applications. In the present work MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord matrix (Wharton's jelly) of human umbilical cord samples. The cells were thoroughly characterized and confirmed as bona-fide MSCs, presenting in vitro low generation time, high proliferative and colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) capacity, typical MSC immunophenotype and osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity. The cells were additionally subjected to an oligodendroglial-oriented step-wise differentiation protocol in order to test their neural- and oligodendroglial-like differentiation capacity. The results confirmed the neural-like plasticity of MSCs, and suggested that the cells presented an oligodendroglial-like phenotype throughout the differentiation protocol, in several aspects sharing characteristics common to those of bona-fide oligodendrocyte precursor cells and differentiated oligodendrocytes.
Project description:Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains the second leading cause of death in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients, highlighting the need for improved preventative strategies. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated in an experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model that bendamustine combined with total body irradiation (BEN+TBI) is a safer alternative to cyclophosphamide with TBI (CY+TBI). The biological mechanisms of action of BEN have not been fully elucidated and likely involve multiple cell populations. Host dendritic cells (DCs) can prime naïve donor T-cells immediately following transplantation, making host DCs critical for the initiation phase of GvHD. We hypothesized that BEN+TBI conditioning favorably alters host DC composition to reduce GvHD. We demonstrate that host DCs treated with BEN+TBI induce less allogeneic T-cell proliferation than those conditioned with CY+TBI. We further show that BEN+TBI conditioning results in greater total numbers of all host DC subsets but with a more favorable composition compared to CY+TBI with significantly larger proportions of type 1 conventional DCs (cDC1), a highly regulatory DC subset capable of suppressing GvHD. Our studies using recipient Batf3 KO mice indicate that CD8?+ cDC1s are largely dispensable for the reduced GvHD following BEN+TBI conditioning. We found a higher frequency of host pre-cDC1s with BEN+TBI conditioning in both wild-type (WT) and Batf3 KO mice, which was inversely associated with GvHD. Additionally, we observed that BEN treatment results in greater expression of Flt3 receptor (CD135) on host DCs compared to CY, potentially contributing to the skewing of host DCs toward cDC1s. Further, BEN+TBI conditioning results in host cDCs with greater expression of PIR-B, an inhibitory receptor capable of preventing lethal GvHD. We conclude that BEN+TBI is a safer alternative to CY+TBI, resulting in a greater frequency of host pre-cDC1s and limiting GvHD.
Project description:Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been shown to both mediate and prevent autoimmunity, and the regulation of their immunogenic versus tolerogenic functions remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that, compared to other cells, pDCs are the major expressors of Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in steady-state lymph nodes (LNs). IDO expression by LN pDCs was closely dependent on MHCII-mediated, antigen-dependent, interactions with Treg. We further established that IDO production by pDCs was necessary to confer suppressive function to Tregs. During EAE development, IDO expression by pDCs was required for the generation of Tregs capable of dampening the priming of encephalitogenic T cell and disease severity. Thus, we describe a novel crosstalk between pDCs and Tregs: Tregs shape tolerogenic functions of pDCs prior to inflammation, such that pDCs in turn, promote Treg suppressive functions during autoimmunity.