Project description:Antibiotic resistance genes expressed in the upper respiratory tract of patients infected with influenza viruses were associated with the microbial community and microbial activities. Interactions between the host systemic responses to influenza infection and ARG expression highlight the importance of antibiotic resistance in viral-bacterial co-infection. Overall design: The microbial gene expression were profiled from the 35 respiratory samples taken from influenza infected individuals
Project description:Antibiotic resistance genes expressed in the upper respiratory tract of patients infected with influenza viruses were associated with the microbial community and microbial activities. Interactions between the host systemic responses to influenza infection and ARG expression highlight the importance of antibiotic resistance in viral-bacterial co-infection. Overall design: The microbial 16s rRNA gene V4 region was amplified and sequenced from the respiratory samples
Project description:Jellyfish are a prominent component of the plankton community. They frequently form conspicuous blooms which may interfere with different human enterprises. Among the aspects that remain understudied are jellyfish associations with microorganisms having potentially important implications for organic matter cycling. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the bacterial community associated with live moon jellyfish (Aurelia solida, Scyohozoa) in the Adriatic Sea. Using 16S rRNA clone libraries and culture-based methods, we have analyzed the bacterial community composition of different body parts: the exumbrella surface, oral arms, and gastric cavity, and investigated possible differences in medusa-associated bacterial community structure at the time of the jellyfish population peak, and during the senescent phase at the end of bloom. Microbiota associated with moon jellyfish was different from ambient seawater bacterial assemblage and varied between different body parts. Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderia, Cupriavidus and Achromobacter) dominated community in the gastral cavity of medusa, while Alphaproteobacteria (Phaeobacter, Ruegeria) and Gammaproteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas, Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio) prevailed on 'outer' body parts. Bacterial community structure changed during senescent phase, at the end of the jellyfish bloom, showing an increased abundance of Gammaproteobacteria, exclusively Vibrio. The results of cultured bacterial isolates showed the dominance of Gammaproeteobacteria, especially Vibrio and Pseudoalteromonas in all body parts. Our results suggest that jellyfish associated bacterial community might have an important role for the host, and that anthropogenic pollution in the Gulf of Trieste might affect their community structure.
Project description:Plant-derived carbon (PDC) released by roots has a strong effect on root-associated bacterial community, which is critical for plant fitness in natural environments. However, the freshly exuded PDC can be diluted by the ancient soil-derived carbon (SDC) at a short distance from root apices. Thus, the rhizosphere C pools are normally dominated by SDC rather than PDC. Yet, how PDC and SDC interact to regulate root-associated bacterial community is largely unknown. In this study, a grass species and a legume species were planted in two contrasting matrixes, quartz sand and soil, to assess the role of PDC and SDC in regulating root-associated bacterial community, and to explore whether SDC affects the influence of PDC on bacterial community in soil. Our results indicated that the legume plant showed significantly positive priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition but the grass plant did not. PDC significantly shaped bacterial community in sand culture as indicated by PCR-DGGE and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Intriguingly, we found that dissimilarity of bacterial communities associated with two plant species and the percentage of specific OTUs in quartz sand were significantly higher than those in soil. Moreover, several biomarkers enriched by plants in quartz sand turned to be general taxa in soil, which indicated that SDC attenuated the regulation of bacterial community by PDC. Taken together, these results suggest that SDC interacted with PDC and the root-associated microbial community, thus acted as soil buffering component of biological process contributing to soil resilience. The importance of PDC in structuring rhizosphere bacterial community needs to be reconsidered in the context of wider contribution of other C pool, such as SDC.
Project description:Background:Changes in aboveground community composition and diversity following shrub encroachment have been studied extensively. Recently, shrub encroachment was associated with differences in belowground bacterial communities relative to non-encroached grassland sites hundreds of meters away. This spatial distance between grassland and shrub sites left open the question of how soil bacterial communities associated with different vegetation types might differ within the same plot location. Methods:We examined soil bacterial communities between shrub-encroached and adjacent (one m apart) grassland soils in Chinese Inner Mongolian, using high-throughput sequencing method (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Results:Shrub-encroached sites were associated with dramatic restructuring of soil bacterial community composition and predicted metabolic function, with significant increase in bacterial alpha-diversity. Moreover, bacterial phylogenic structures showed clustering in both shrub-encroached and grassland soils, suggesting that each vegetation type was associated with a unique and defined bacterial community by niche filtering. Finally, soil organic carbon (SOC) was the primary driver varied with shifts in soil bacterial community composition. The encroachment was associated with elevated SOC, suggesting that shrub-mediated shifts in SOC might be responsible for changes in belowground bacterial community. Discussion:This study demonstrated that shrub-encroached soils were associated with dramatic restructuring of bacterial communities, suggesting that belowground bacterial communities appear to be sensitive indicators of vegetation type. Our study indicates that the increased shrub-encroached intensity in Inner Mongolia will likely trigger large-scale disruptions in both aboveground plant and belowground bacterial communities across the region.
Project description:The sea squirt Ciona intestinalis is a well-studied model organism in developmental biology, yet little is known about its associated bacterial community. In this study, a combination of 454 pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization and bacterial culture were used to characterize the bacteria living inside and on the exterior coating, or tunic, of C. intestinalis adults. The 454 sequencing data set demonstrated that the tunic bacterial community structure is different from that of the surrounding seawater. The observed tunic bacterial consortium contained a shared community of <10 abundant bacterial phylotypes across three individuals. Culture experiments yielded four bacterial strains that were also dominant groups in the 454 sequencing data set, including novel representatives of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The relatively simple bacterial community and availability of dominant community members in culture make C. intestinalis a promising system in which to investigate functional interactions between host-associated microbiota and the development of host innate immunity.
Project description:Algal cultures are generally co-cultures of algae and bacteria, especially when considering outdoor cultivation. However, the effects of associated bacteria on algal growth remain largely unexplored, particularly in the context of Isochrysis galbana. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antibiotic on the growth of I. galbana and its associated bacterial community. We found advantageous responses of I. galbana to antibiotic exposure, evidenced by the increased growth, and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). Since antibiotics can cause major disturbances within bacterial community, we further conducted 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to determine the changes of bacterial community diversity following antibiotic treatment. We found that antibiotic treatment considerably and negatively affected the abundance and diversity of bacterial community, and 17 significantly decreased bacterial species in the antibiotic-treated medium, including Pseudomonas stutzeri, were identified. Further co-culture experiments revealed that P. stutzeri inhibited the growth of I. galbana, and the inhibitory activity was retained in the cell-free bacterial filtrate. These results indicated that the negative effect of bacteria was not exclusively transmitted through contact with I. galbana but could be also mediated via secretory compounds. Taken together, our findings not only fully characterized the bacterial community associated with I. galbana and how the bacterial community changed in response to antibiotic perturbations, but also provided a valuable information about the interactions between I. galbana and its associated bacteria, which might help improve the yield, and quality of I. galbana during its cultivation processes.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the causative agent of serious hospital- and community-associated infections. Due to the global rise in community-associated MRSA, the respective lineages are increasingly introduced into hospitals. This raises the question whether and, if so, how they adapt to this new environment. The present study was aimed at investigating how MRSA isolates of the USA300 lineage, infamous for causing infections in the general population, have adapted to the hospital environment. To this end, a collection of community- and hospital-associated USA300 isolates was compared by RNA-sequencing. Here we report that merely 460 genes were differentially expressed between these two epidemiologically distinct groups, including genes for virulence factors, oxidative stress responses and the purine, pyrimidine and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways. Differentially regulated virulence factors included leukotoxins and phenol-soluble modulins, implicated in staphylococcal escape from immune cells. We therefore investigated the ability of the studied isolates to survive internalization by human neutrophils. This showed that the community-associated isolates have the highest neutrophil-killing activity, while the hospital-associated isolates are better adapted to intra-neutrophil survival. Importantly, the latter trait protects internalized staphylococci against a challenge with antibiotics. We therefore conclude that prolonged intra-neutrophil survival serves as a relatively simple early adaptation of S. aureus USA300 to the hospital environment where antibiotic pressure is high. Overall design: 12 bacterial isolates were grown in duplicate. Samples were collected for RNA isolation from each replicates both from exponentially and stationary growing cells resulting in a total of 24 samples.