Project description:Multiomics of faecal samples collected from individuals in families with multiple cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) over 3 or 4 months. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing and metaproteomics were carried out, as well as whole human genome sequencing. Phenotypic data is available.
Project description:As the cost of DNA sequencing decreases, association studies based on whole genome sequencing are now becoming feasible. It is still unclear, however, how much more we could gain from whole genome sequencing compared to exome sequencing, which has been widely used to study a variety of diseases. In this project, we performed a comparison between whole genome sequencing and exome sequencing for family-based association analysis using data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. Whole genome sequencing was able to identify several significant hits within intergenic regions. However, the increased cost of multiple testing counteracted the benefits and resulted in a higher false discovery rate. Our results suggest that exome sequencing is a cost-effective way to identify disease-related variants. With the decreasing sequencing cost and accumulating knowledge of the human genome, whole genome sequencing has the potential to identify important variants in regulatory regions typically inaccessible for exome sequencing.
Project description:PURPOSE:The translation of genome sequencing into routine health care has been slow, partly because of concerns about affordability. The aspirational cost of sequencing a genome is $1000, but there is little evidence to support this estimate. We estimate the cost of using genome sequencing in routine clinical care in patients with cancer or rare diseases. METHODS:We performed a microcosting study of Illumina-based genome sequencing in a UK National Health Service laboratory processing 399 samples/year. Cost data were collected for all steps in the sequencing pathway, including bioinformatics analysis and reporting of results. Sensitivity analysis identified key cost drivers. RESULTS:Genome sequencing costs £6841 per cancer case (comprising matched tumor and germline samples) and £7050 per rare disease case (three samples). The consumables used during sequencing are the most expensive component of testing (68-72% of the total cost). Equipment costs are higher for rare disease cases, whereas consumable and staff costs are slightly higher for cancer cases. CONCLUSION:The cost of genome sequencing is underestimated if only sequencing costs are considered, and likely surpasses $1000/genome in a single laboratory. This aspirational sequencing cost will likely only be achieved if consumable costs are considerably reduced and sequencing is performed at scale.
Project description:Highlights•PCR amplification of the viral genome, results in partial genome sequences (72% and 98% respectively).•Primer based sequencing methods have 5 to 5.6 times more N reads compared to NGS platform sequencing kits, indicating poor sequence quality.•The Ion Torrent PGM sequencing results in sequencing 99% of the viral genome.•ProtonTorrent and Illumina Nextseq sequenced 99-100% of the viral genome, leading a to full genome sequence at high coverage.•The virus is mostly mutated within a host at intergenic regions.
Project description:As large-scale genome sequencing technology advances, concerns surrounding the reporting of individual findings to study volunteers have grown and fueled controversy. This is especially true in mental health research, where the clinical importance of sequencing results is particularly unclear. The ethical, legal, and social issues are being widely debated, but less is known about the attitudes of actual study volunteers toward sequencing studies or what they wish to learn about their DNA sequence and its health implications. This study provides information on psychiatric research volunteers' attitudes, beliefs, and concerns with respect to participation in DNA sequencing studies and reporting of individual results.We conducted a pilot study using a questionnaire that we developed to assess what information volunteers in an ongoing family study of bipolar disorder would like to receive if they underwent genome sequencing, what they would do with that information, and what concerns they may have.Almost all of the respondents were willing to participate in genome sequencing. Most respondents wished to be informed about all their health-related genetic risks, including risks for diseases without known prevention or treatment. However, few respondents felt well informed about the nature of genome sequencing or its implications for their health, insurability, or offspring.Despite generally positive attitudes toward genome sequencing among study volunteers, most are not fully aware of the special issues raised by genome sequencing. The attitudes of study volunteers should be considered in the debate about the reporting of individual findings from genome sequencing.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Genome sequencing is poised to be incorporated into clinical care for diagnoses of rare diseases and some cancers in many parts of the world. Healthcare professionals are key stakeholders in the clinical delivery of genome sequencing-based services. Our aim was to explore views of healthcare professionals with experience of offering genome sequencing via the 100?000 Genomes Project. DESIGN:Interview study using thematic analysis. SETTING:Four National Health Service hospitals in London. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty-three healthcare professionals (five genetic clinicians and eight non-genetic clinicians (all consultants), and 10 'consenters' from a range of backgrounds) involved in identifying or consenting patients for the 100?000 Genomes Project. RESULTS:Most participants expressed positive attitudes towards genome sequencing in terms of improved ability to diagnose rare diseases, but many also expressed concerns, with some believing its superiority over exome sequencing had not yet been demonstrated, or worrying that non-genetic clinicians are inadequately prepared to discuss genome sequencing results with patients. Several emphasised additional evidence about utility of genome sequencing in terms of both main and secondary findings is needed. Most felt non-genetic clinicians could support patients during consent, as long as they have appropriate training and support from genetic teams. Many stated genetics experts will play a vital role in training and supporting non-genetic clinicians in variant interpretation and results delivery, particularly for more complex cases. CONCLUSIONS:Healthcare professionals responsible for delivering clinical genome sequencing have largely positive views about the potential for genome sequencing to improve diagnostic yield, but also significant concerns about practical aspects of offering these tests. Non-genetic clinicians delivering genome sequencing require guidance and support. Additional empirical evidence is needed to inform policy and practice, including how genome compares to exome sequencing; utility of secondary findings; training, in particular of non-genetic health professionals; and mechanisms whereby genetics teams can offer appropriate support to their non-genetics colleagues.
Project description:PURPOSE:We investigated the value of transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) in ascertaining the consequence of DNA variants on RNA transcripts to improve the diagnostic rate from exome or genome sequencing for undiagnosed Mendelian diseases spanning a wide spectrum of clinical indications. METHODS:From 234 subjects referred to the Undiagnosed Diseases Network, University of California-Los Angeles clinical site between July 2014 and August 2018, 113 were enrolled for high likelihood of having rare undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions despite thorough prior clinical evaluation. Exome or genome sequencing and RNAseq were performed, and RNAseq data was integrated with genome sequencing data for DNA variant interpretation genome-wide. RESULTS:The molecular diagnostic rate by exome or genome sequencing was 31%. Integration of RNAseq with genome sequencing resulted in an additional seven cases with clear diagnosis of a known genetic disease. Thus, the overall molecular diagnostic rate was 38%, and 18% of all genetic diagnoses returned required RNAseq to determine variant causality. CONCLUSION:In this rare disease cohort with a wide spectrum of undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions, RNAseq analysis increased the molecular diagnostic rate above that possible with genome sequencing analysis alone even without availability of the most appropriate tissue type to assess.
Project description:Substantial progress has been made in human genetics and genomics research over the past ten years since the publication of the draft sequence of the human genome in 2001. Findings emanating directly from the Human Genome Project, together with those from follow-on studies, have had an enormous impact on our understanding of the architecture and function of the human genome. Major developments have been made in cataloguing genetic variation, the International HapMap Project, and with respect to advances in genotyping technologies. These developments are vital for the emergence of genome-wide association studies in the investigation of complex diseases and traits. In parallel, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has ushered in the 'personal genome sequencing' era for both normal and cancer genomes, and made possible large-scale genome sequencing studies such as the 1000 Genomes Project and the International Cancer Genome Consortium. The high-throughput sequencing and sequence-capture technologies are also providing new opportunities to study Mendelian disorders through exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing. This paper reviews these major developments in human genetics and genomics over the past decade.
Project description:Completion of tomato genome sequencing project has broad impacts on genetic and genomic studies of tomato and Solanaceae plants. The reference genome sequence derived from Solanum lycopersicum cv 'Heinz 1706' serves as the firm basis for sequencing-based approaches to tomato genomics. In this article, we first present a brief summary of the genome sequencing project and a summary of the reference genome sequence. We then focus on recent progress in transcriptome sequencing and small RNA sequencing and show how the reference genome sequence makes these analyses more comprehensive than before. We discuss the potential of in-depth analysis that is based on DNA methylome sequencing and transcription start-site detection. Finally, we describe the current status of efforts to resequence S. lycopersicum cultivars to demonstrate how resequencing can allow the use of intraspecific genomic diversity for detailed phenotyping and breeding.