Project description:BACKGROUND: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is widely accepted as a model organism regarding photosynthesis, circadian rhythm, cell mobility, phototaxis, and biotechnology. The complete annotation of the genome allows transcriptomic studies, however a new microarray platform was needed. Based on the completed annotation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii a new microarray on an Agilent platform was designed using an extended JGI 3.1 genome data set which included 15000 transcript models. RESULTS: In total 44000 probes were determined (3 independent probes per transcript model) covering 93% of the transcriptome. Alignment studies with the recently published AUGUSTUS 10.2 annotation confirmed 11000 transcript models resulting in a very good coverage of 70% of the transcriptome (17000). Following the estimation of 10000 predicted genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii our new microarray, nevertheless, covers the expected genome by 90-95%. CONCLUSIONS: To demonstrate the capabilities of the new microarray, we analyzed transcript levels for cultures grown under nitrogen as well as sulfate limitation, and compared the results with recently published microarray and RNA-seq data. We could thereby confirm previous results derived from data on nutrient-starvation induced gene expression of a group of genes related to protein transport and adaptation of the metabolism as well as genes related to efficient light harvesting, light energy distribution and photosynthetic electron transport.
Project description:Green algae have a great potential as biofactories for the production of proteins. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a representative of eukaryotic microalgae, has been extensively used as a model organism to study light-induced gene expression, chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthesis, light perception, cell-cell recognition, and cell cycle control. However, little is known about the glycosylation machinery and N-linked glycan structures of green algae. In this study, we performed mass spectrometry analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides released from total extracts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and demonstrated that C. reinhardtii algae possess glycoproteins with mammalian-like sialylated N-linked oligosaccharides. These findings suggest that C. reinhardtii may be an attractive system for expression of target proteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play an essential role in the modulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for the study of many metabolic processes including responses to sulfur-deprivation. We used a deep sequencing platform to extensively profile and identify changes in the miRNAs expression that occurred under sulfur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions. The aim of our research was to characterize the differential expression of Chlamydomonas miRNAs under sulfur-deprived conditions, and subsequently, the target genes of miRNA involved in sulfur-deprivation were further predicted and analyzed. RESULTS: By using high-throughput sequencing, we characterized the microRNA transcriptomes under sulphur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We predicted a total of 310 miRNAs which included 85 known miRNAs and 225 novel miRNAs. 13 miRNAs were the specific to the sulfur-deprived conditions. 47 miRNAs showed significantly differential expressions responding to sulfur-deprivation, and most were up-regulated in the small RNA libraries with sulfur-deprivation. Using a web-based integrated system (Web MicroRNAs Designer 3) and combing the former information from a transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 22 miRNAs and their targets involved in metabolism regulation with sulfur-deprivation were verified. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that sulfur-deprivation may have a significant influence on small RNA expression patterns, and the differential expressions of miRNAs and interactions between miRNA and its targets might further reveal the molecular mechanism responding to sulfur-deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Project description:We analysed global gene expression changes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to 1h UV-B, applied at the same low level that was seen to promote subsequent UV-B stress tolerance, in order to elucidate the transcriptional reprogramming that leads to UV-B acclimation. mRNA profiles generated by deep sequencing from triplicate replicate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii samples sourced from independent cultures either protected from UV-B or exposed to 1h acclimation-level UV-B.
Project description:Endogenous (circadian) and exogenous (e.g., diel) biological rhythms are a prominent feature of many living systems. In green algal species, knowledge of the extent of diel rhythmicity of genome-wide gene expression, its evolution, and its cis-regulatory mechanism is limited. In this study, we identified cyclically expressed genes under diel conditions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and found that ~50% of the 17,114 annotated genes exhibited cyclic expression. These cyclic expression patterns indicate a clear succession of biological processes during the course of a day. Among 237 functional categories enriched in cyclically expressed genes, >90% were phase-specific, including photosynthesis, cell division, and motility-related processes. By contrasting cyclic expression between C. reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, we found significant but weak conservation in cyclic gene expression patterns. On the other hand, within C. reinhardtii cyclic expression was preferentially maintained between duplicates, and the evolution of phase between paralogs is limited to relatively minor time shifts. Finally, to better understand the cis regulatory basis of diel expression, putative cis-regulatory elements were identified that could predict the expression phase of a subset of the cyclic transcriptome. Our findings demonstrate both the prevalence of cycling genes as well as the complex regulatory circuitry required to control cyclic expression in a green algal model, highlighting the need to consider diel expression in studying algal molecular networks and in future biotechnological applications.
Project description:Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga that has attracted interest due to its potential biotechnological applications, and as a model for algal biofuel and energy metabolism. Despite all the advantages that this unicellular alga offers, poor and inconsistent expression of nuclear transgenes remains an obstacle for basic and applied research. We used a data-mining strategy to identify highly expressed genes in Chlamydomonas whose flanking sequences were tested for the ability to drive heterologous nuclear transgene expression. Candidates identified in this search included two ribosomal protein genes, RPL35a and RPL23, and ferredoxin, FDX1, whose flanking regions including promoters, terminators and untranslated sequences could drive stable luciferase transgene expression to significantly higher levels than the commonly used Hsp70A-RBCS2 (AR) hybrid promoter/terminator sequences. The RPL23 flanking sequences were further tested using the zeocin resistance gene sh-ble as a reporter in monocistronic and dicistronic constructs, and consistently yielded higher numbers of zeocin-resistant transformants and higher levels of resistance than AR- or PSAD-based vectors. Chlamydomonas RPL23 sequences also enabled transgene expression in Volvox carteri. Our study provides an additional benchmark for strong constitutive expression of transgenes in Chlamydomonas, and develops a general approach for identifying flanking sequences that can be used to drive transgene expression for any organism where transcriptome data are available.
Project description:Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the occurrence of many diseases. However, excessive Se supplementation, especially with inorganic Se, can result in toxicity. Selenoproteins are the major forms of Se in vivo to exert its biological function. Expression of those selenoproteins, especially with the application of a newly developed system, is thus very important for studying the mechanism of Se in nutrition. The use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) as a biological vector to express an heterogeneous protein is still at the initial stages of development. In order to investigate the possibility of using this system to express selenoproteins, human 15-KDa selenoprotein (Sep15), a small but widely distributed selenoprotein in mammals, was chosen for the expression platform test. Apart from the wild-type human Sep15 gene fragment, two Sep15 recombinants were constructed containing Sep15 open reading frame (ORF) and the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element from either human Sep15 or C. reinhardtii selenoprotein W1, a highly expressed selenoprotein in this alga. Those Sep15-containing plasmids were transformed into C. reinhardtii CC-849 cells. Results showed that Sep15 fragments were successfully inserted into the nuclear genome and expressed Sep15 protein in the cells. The transgenic and wild-type algae demonstrated similar growth curves in low Se culture medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report on expressing human selenoprotein in green alga.
Project description:Here, we report on the transcriptome of the organelles of the micro-alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, sampled under a number of different conditions. The preparation of the RNA-Seq libraries and their analysis were performed using protocols optimized for organellar transcripts. Samples include growth in media +/– Fe, growth in media +/– Cu, diurnal growth samples collected in dark and light, and the sexual cycle. Overall design: RNA-Seq libraries were prepared from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii sampled under 12 different conditions including: diurnal growth in light, diurnal growth in dark, +Fe, –Fe, +Cu, –Cu, mt+ vegetative, mt– vegetative, mt+ gamete, mt– gamete, zygote, and post-germination.
Project description:Efficient nuclear transgene expression in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is generally hindered by low transcription rates. Introns can increase transcript abundance by a process called Intron-Mediated Enhancement (IME) in this alga and has been broadly observed in other eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of IME in microalgae are poorly understood. Here, we identified 33 native introns from highly expressed genes in C. reinhardtii selected from transcriptome studies as well as 13 non-native introns. We investigated their IME capacities and probed the mechanism of action by modification of splice sites, internal sequence motifs, and position within transgenes. Several introns were found to elicit strong IME and found to be broadly applicable in different expression constructs. We determined that IME in C. reinhardtii exclusively occurs from introns within transcribed ORFs regardless of the promoter and is not induced by traditional enhancers of transcription. Our results elucidate some mechanistic details of IME in C. reinhardtii, which are similar to those observed in higher plants yet underly distinctly different induction processes. Our findings narrow the focus of targets responsible for algal IME and provides evidence that introns are underestimated regulators of C. reinhardtii nuclear gene expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transformation of microalgae to obtain recombinant proteins, lipids or metabolites of economic value is of growing interest due to low costs associated with culture growth and scaling up. At present there are only three stable nuclear selection markers for the transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is the most commonly transformed microalgae, specifically: the aminoglycoside phosphotransferaseses aph7and aphVIII and the phleomycin resistance ble gene. As several microalgae are resistant to some of the antibiotics associated with the mentioned resistance genes, we have developed another alternative, tetX, a NADP-requiring Oxidoreductase that hydroxylates tetracycline substrates. We provide evidence that tetX can be used to obtain nuclear transformants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. RESULTS:We obtained nuclear transformants harbouring the tetX gene under the control of beta 2 tubulin or HSP70ARBCS2 promoters at an efficiency of transformation of 3.28 and 6.18 colony forming units/?g DNA respectively. This is the first report of a eukaryotic cell transformed using tetracycline as a selectable marker. CONCLUSIONS:We developed a protocol for the nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using tetX as a selectable marker that confers stable resistance to tetracycline up to 100 ?g/mL. We believe tetX can be used to transform Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts, related microalgae and other aerobic organisms sensitive to any tetracycline antibiotic.