Project description:BACKGROUND: As more and more reference genome sequences are assembled, it becomes practical to assemble individual genomes from large amount of raw read data based on a reference sequence. However, most available assembly tools are designed for de-novo genome assembly. There is one commercial tool box (Newbler) developed for re-sequencing projects based on the Roche 454 sequencing platform. However, the genome with large repeat regions cannot be well assembled in Newbler. FINDINGS: We developed a new sequence assembly tool (BIGrat, Beijing Institute of Genomics Re-Assembly Tool) for pyrosequencing-based re-sequencing projects, such as data generated from Roche 454 and IonTorrent platforms. BIGrat improves the output of Newbler when evaluated on genome assemblies including chloroplast, mitochondrial, bacterial, and plant nuclear genomes. CONCLUSION: We presented a novel sequence assembly tool BIGrat for pyrosequencing-based re-sequencing projects, which can easily be integrated into Newbler pipelines for next-generation sequencing assembly and analysis.
Project description:The availability of genomes across the tree of life is highly biased toward vertebrates, pathogens, human disease models, and organisms with relatively small and simple genomes. Recent progress in genomics has enabled the de novo decoding of the genome of virtually any organism, greatly expanding its potential for understanding the biology and evolution of the full spectrum of biodiversity. The increasing diversity of sequencing technologies, assays, and de novo assembly algorithms have augmented the complexity of de novo genome sequencing projects in non-model organisms. To reduce the costs and challenges in de novo genome sequencing projects and streamline their experimental design and analysis, we developed iWGS (in silico Whole Genome Sequencer and Analyzer), an automated pipeline for guiding the choice of appropriate sequencing strategy and assembly protocols. iWGS seamlessly integrates the four key steps of a de novo genome sequencing project: data generation (through simulation), data quality control, de novo assembly, and assembly evaluation and validation. The last three steps can also be applied to the analysis of real data. iWGS is designed to enable the user to have great flexibility in testing the range of experimental designs available for genome sequencing projects, and supports all major sequencing technologies and popular assembly tools. Three case studies illustrate how iWGS can guide the design of de novo genome sequencing projects and evaluate the performance of a wide variety of user-specified sequencing strategies and assembly protocols on genomes of differing architectures. iWGS, along with a detailed documentation, is freely available at https://github.com/zhouxiaofan1983/iWGS.
Project description:Recent developments in high-throughput sequencing technology have made low-cost sequencing an attractive approach for many genome analysis tasks. Increasing read lengths, improving quality and the production of increasingly larger numbers of usable sequences per instrument-run continue to make whole-genome assembly an appealing target application. In this paper we evaluate the feasibility of de novo genome assembly from short reads (?100 nucleotides) through a detailed study involving genomic sequences of various lengths and origin, in conjunction with several of the currently popular assembly programs. Our extensive analysis demonstrates that, in addition to sequencing coverage, attributes such as the architecture of the target genome, the identity of the used assembly program, the average read length and the observed sequencing error rates are powerful variables that affect the best achievable assembly of the target sequence in terms of size and correctness.
Project description:Illumina sequencing allows rapid, cheap and accurate whole genome bacterial analyses, but short reads (<300?bp) do not usually enable complete genome assembly. Long-read sequencing greatly assists with resolving complex bacterial genomes, particularly when combined with short-read Illumina data (hybrid assembly). However, it is not clear how different long-read sequencing methods affect hybrid assembly accuracy. Relative automation of the assembly process is also crucial to facilitating high-throughput complete bacterial genome reconstruction, avoiding multiple bespoke filtering and data manipulation steps. In this study, we compared hybrid assemblies for 20 bacterial isolates, including two reference strains, using Illumina sequencing and long reads from either Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) or SMRT Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequencing platforms. We chose isolates from the family Enterobacteriaceae, as these frequently have highly plastic, repetitive genetic structures, and complete genome reconstruction for these species is relevant for a precise understanding of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. We de novo assembled genomes using the hybrid assembler Unicycler and compared different read processing strategies, as well as comparing to long-read-only assembly with Flye followed by short-read polishing with Pilon. Hybrid assembly with either PacBio or ONT reads facilitated high-quality genome reconstruction, and was superior to the long-read assembly and polishing approach evaluated with respect to accuracy and completeness. Combining ONT and Illumina reads fully resolved most genomes without additional manual steps, and at a lower consumables cost per isolate in our setting. Automated hybrid assembly is a powerful tool for complete and accurate bacterial genome assembly.
Project description:Advances in sequencing technology have drastically increased the depth and feasibility of bacterial genome sequencing. However, little information is available that details the specific techniques and procedures employed during genome sequencing despite the large numbers of published genomes. Shotgun approaches employed by second-generation sequencing platforms has necessitated the development of robust bioinformatics tools for in silico assembly, and complete assembly is limited by the presence of repetitive DNA sequences and multi-copy operons. Typically, re-sequencing with multiple platforms and laborious, targeted Sanger sequencing are employed to finish a draft bacterial genome. Here we describe a novel strategy based on the identification and targeted sequencing of repetitive rDNA operons to expedite bacterial genome assembly and finishing. Our strategy was validated by finishing the genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain CR1, a bacterium with potential in sustainable agriculture and bio-based processes. An analysis of the 38 contigs contained in the P. polymyxa strain CR1 draft genome revealed 12 repetitive rDNA operons with varied intragenic and flanking regions of variable length, unanimously located at contig boundaries and within contig gaps. These highly similar but not identical rDNA operons were experimentally verified and sequenced simultaneously with multiple, specially designed primer sets. This approach also identified and corrected significant sequence rearrangement generated during the initial in silico assembly of sequencing reads. Our approach reduces the required effort associated with blind primer walking for contig assembly, increasing both the speed and feasibility of genome finishing. Our study further reinforces the notion that repetitive DNA elements are major limiting factors for genome finishing. Moreover, we provided a step-by-step workflow for genome finishing, which may guide future bacterial genome finishing projects.