Project description:Here, we report on the transcriptome of the organelles of the micro-alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, sampled under a number of different conditions. The preparation of the RNA-Seq libraries and their analysis were performed using protocols optimized for organellar transcripts. Samples include growth in media +/– Fe, growth in media +/– Cu, diurnal growth samples collected in dark and light, and the sexual cycle. Overall design: RNA-Seq libraries were prepared from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii sampled under 12 different conditions including: diurnal growth in light, diurnal growth in dark, +Fe, –Fe, +Cu, –Cu, mt+ vegetative, mt– vegetative, mt+ gamete, mt– gamete, zygote, and post-germination.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is widely accepted as a model organism regarding photosynthesis, circadian rhythm, cell mobility, phototaxis, and biotechnology. The complete annotation of the genome allows transcriptomic studies, however a new microarray platform was needed. Based on the completed annotation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii a new microarray on an Agilent platform was designed using an extended JGI 3.1 genome data set which included 15000 transcript models. RESULTS: In total 44000 probes were determined (3 independent probes per transcript model) covering 93% of the transcriptome. Alignment studies with the recently published AUGUSTUS 10.2 annotation confirmed 11000 transcript models resulting in a very good coverage of 70% of the transcriptome (17000). Following the estimation of 10000 predicted genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii our new microarray, nevertheless, covers the expected genome by 90-95%. CONCLUSIONS: To demonstrate the capabilities of the new microarray, we analyzed transcript levels for cultures grown under nitrogen as well as sulfate limitation, and compared the results with recently published microarray and RNA-seq data. We could thereby confirm previous results derived from data on nutrient-starvation induced gene expression of a group of genes related to protein transport and adaptation of the metabolism as well as genes related to efficient light harvesting, light energy distribution and photosynthetic electron transport.
Project description:BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play an essential role in the modulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for the study of many metabolic processes including responses to sulfur-deprivation. We used a deep sequencing platform to extensively profile and identify changes in the miRNAs expression that occurred under sulfur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions. The aim of our research was to characterize the differential expression of Chlamydomonas miRNAs under sulfur-deprived conditions, and subsequently, the target genes of miRNA involved in sulfur-deprivation were further predicted and analyzed. RESULTS: By using high-throughput sequencing, we characterized the microRNA transcriptomes under sulphur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We predicted a total of 310 miRNAs which included 85 known miRNAs and 225 novel miRNAs. 13 miRNAs were the specific to the sulfur-deprived conditions. 47 miRNAs showed significantly differential expressions responding to sulfur-deprivation, and most were up-regulated in the small RNA libraries with sulfur-deprivation. Using a web-based integrated system (Web MicroRNAs Designer 3) and combing the former information from a transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 22 miRNAs and their targets involved in metabolism regulation with sulfur-deprivation were verified. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that sulfur-deprivation may have a significant influence on small RNA expression patterns, and the differential expressions of miRNAs and interactions between miRNA and its targets might further reveal the molecular mechanism responding to sulfur-deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Project description:The polyadenylation of RNA is a near-universal feature of RNA metabolism in eukaryotes. This process has been studied in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-throughput (gene-by-gene) and high-throughput (transcriptome sequencing) approaches that recovered poly(A)-containing sequence tags which revealed interesting features of this critical process in Chlamydomonas. In this study, RNA polyadenylation has been studied using the so-called Poly(A) Tag Sequencing (PAT-Seq) approach. Specifically, PAT-Seq was used to study poly(A) site choice in cultures grown in four different media types-Tris-Phosphate (TP), Tris-Phosphate-Acetate (TAP), High-Salt (HS), and High-Salt-Acetate (HAS). The results indicate that: 1. As reported before, the motif UGUAA is the primary, and perhaps sole, cis-element that guides mRNA polyadenylation in the nucleus; 2. The scope of alternative polyadenylation events with the potential to change the coding sequences of mRNAs is limited; 3. Changes in poly(A) site choice in cultures grown in the different media types are very few in number and do not affect protein-coding potential; 4. Organellar polyadenylation is considerable and affects primarily ribosomal RNAs in the chloroplast and mitochondria; and 5. Organellar RNA polyadenylation is a dynamic process that is affected by the different media types used for cell growth.
Project description:This data was generated to identify the molecular pathways responsible for nitrous oxide synthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, when supplied with nitrite under aerobic conditions (oxia). RNA samples were collected at three time points, 15 min, 3 hours, and 24 hours after the start of the experiment. The control and treatment groups were grown under the same conditions, except treatment group was supplied with 10mM nitrite at time 0. Illumina TruSeq stranded RNA libraries were synthesised from the resulting RNA before sequencing on a HiSeq2500 (125bp). The resulting sequence run generated 241,151,809 paired-end 125bp reads, of which 200,946,839 remained following quality filtering. The short data was mapped to the published genome and read counts were generated with HT-Seq count with the default settings. The raw read count data was analysed by DESeq2 in order to identify genes differentially expressed during nitrous oxide production. Overall design: Stranded RNA-seq libaries were synthesised from RNA collect at 15 minutes, 3 hours, and 24 hours after addition of 10 mM nitrite to the treatment group of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Controls were grown under identical conditions but not supplied with nitrite. Three growth flask were used for the control and treatment group to provide triplicates.
Project description:Here, we report a transcriptomics analysis on a day in the life of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cultures of this unicellular alga were grown in photobioreactors on a 12 h light / 12 h dark cycle. Samples were collected at regular intervals and subjected to a transcriptomics analysis by RNA-Seq. Overall design: RNA-Seq libraries were prepared from synchronized cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii sampled at regular intervals over the course of a diurnal cycle. Light intensity during the day was 200 PFD.
Project description:Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses threatening plant growth and agricultural productivity worldwide. In green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, physiological evidence indicates that saline stress increases intracellular peroxide levels and inhibits photosynthetic-electron flow. However, understanding the genetic underpinnings of salt-responding traits in plantae remains a daunting challenge. In this study, the transcriptome analysis of short-term acclimation to salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 24 h) was performed in C. reinhardtii. A total of 10,635 unigenes were identified as being differently expressed by RNA-seq, including 5920 up- and 4715 down-regulated unigenes. A series of molecular cues were screened for salt stress response, including maintaining the lipid homeostasis by regulating phosphatidic acid, acetate being used as an alternative source of energy for solving impairment of photosynthesis, and enhancement of glycolysis metabolism to decrease the carbohydrate accumulation in cells. Our results may help understand the molecular and genetic underpinnings of salt stress responses in green alga C. reinhardtii.
Project description:Zinc is an essential nutrient because of its role in catalysis and in protein stabilization, but excess zinc is deleterious. We distinguished four nutritional zinc states in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: toxic, replete, deficient, and limited. Growth is inhibited in zinc-limited and zinc-toxic cells relative to zinc-replete cells, whereas zinc deficiency is visually asymptomatic but distinguished by the accumulation of transcripts encoding ZIP family transporters. To identify targets of zinc deficiency and mechanisms of zinc acclimation, we used RNA-seq to probe zinc nutrition-responsive changes in gene expression. We identified genes encoding zinc-handling components, including ZIP family transporters and candidate chaperones. Additionally, we noted an impact on two other regulatory pathways, the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and the nutritional copper regulon. Targets of transcription factor Ccm1 and various CAH genes are up-regulated in zinc deficiency, probably due to reduced carbonic anhydrase activity, validated by quantitative proteomics and immunoblot analysis of Cah1, Cah3, and Cah4. Chlamydomonas is therefore not able to grow photoautotrophically in zinc-limiting conditions, but supplementation with 1% CO2 restores growth to wild-type rates, suggesting that the inability to maintain CCM is a major consequence of zinc limitation. The Crr1 regulon responds to copper limitation and is turned on in zinc deficiency, and Crr1 is required for growth in zinc-limiting conditions. Zinc-deficient cells are functionally copper-deficient, although they hyperaccumulate copper up to 50-fold over normal levels. We suggest that zinc-deficient cells sequester copper in a biounavailable form, perhaps to prevent mismetallation of critical zinc sites.
Project description:Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner's supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni²?-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni²? because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology.
Project description:RNA populations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Keywords: Highly parallel pyrosequencing Small RNAs were prepared from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii total extracts,ligated to a 3' adaptor and a 5' acceptor sequentially, and then RT-PCR amplified. PCR products were reamplified using a pair of 454 cloning primers and provided to 454 Life Sciences (Branford, CT) for sequencing. For technical details, see Tao Zhao, Guanglin Li, Shijun Mi, Shan Li, Gregory J. Hannon, Xiu-Jie Wang, and Yijun Qi. 2007. A Complex System of Small RNAs in the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genes & Development