Project description:Bacteriophages of freshwater environments have not been well studied despite their numerical dominance and ecological importance. Currently, very few phages have been isolated for many abundant freshwater bacterial groups, especially for the family Comamonadaceae that is found ubiquitously in freshwater habitats. In this study, we report two novel phages, P26059A and P26059B, that were isolated from Lake Soyang in South Korea, and lytically infected bacterial strain IMCC26059, a member of the family Comamonadaceae. Morphological observations revealed that phages P26059A and P26059B belonged to the family Siphoviridae and Podoviridae, respectively. Of 12 bacterial strains tested, the two phages infected strain IMCC26059 only, showing a very narrow host range. The genomes of the two phages were different in length and highly distinct from each other with little sequence similarity. A comparison of the phage genome sequences and freshwater viral metagenomes showed that the phage populations represented by P26059A and P26059B exist in the environment with different distribution patterns. Presence of the phages in Lake Soyang and Lake Michigan also indicated a consistent lytic infection of the Comamonadaceae bacterium, which might control the population size of this bacterial group. Taken together, although the two phages shared a host strain, they showed completely distinctive characteristics from each other in morphological, genomic, and ecological analyses. Considering the abundance of the family Comamonadaceae in freshwater habitats and the rarity of phage isolates infecting this family, the two phages and their genomes in this study would be valuable resources for freshwater virus research.
Project description:The distribution and phylogenetic affiliations of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)-degrading denitrifying bacteria in activated sludge were studied by a polyphasic approach including culture-independent biomarker and molecular analyses as well as cultivation methods. A total of 23 strains of PHBV-degrading denitrifiers were isolated from activated sludges from different sewage treatment plants. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence comparisons showed that 20 of the isolates were identified as members of the family Comamonadaceae, a major group of beta-Proteobacteria. When the sludges from different plants were acclimated with PHBV under denitrifying conditions in laboratory scale reactors, the nitrate removal rate increased linearly during the first 4 weeks and reached 20 mg NO(3)(-)-N h(-1) g of dry sludge(-1) at the steady state. The bacterial-community change in the laboratory scale sludges during the acclimation was monitored by rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization and quinone profiling. Both approaches showed that the population of beta-Proteobacteria in the laboratory sludges increased sharply during acclimation regardless of their origins. 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed from two different acclimated sludges, and a total of 37 clones from the libraries were phylogenetically analyzed. Most of the 16S rDNA clones were grouped with members of the family Comamonadaceae. The results of our polyphasic approach indicate that beta-Proteobacteria, especially members of the family Comamonadaceae, are primary PHBV-degrading denitrifiers in activated sludge. Our data provide useful information for the development of a new nitrogen removal system with solid biopolymer as an electron donor.
Project description:Intraterrestrial waters harbor microbial communities being extensively studied to understand microbial processes underlying subsurface ecosystem functioning. This paper provides the results of an investigation on the microbiomes of unique, subsurface sulfidic waters associated with Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Miocene sediments. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to reveal the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities in water samples differing in sulfide content (20-960 mg/dm3), salinity (1.3-3.2%), and depth of extraction (60-660 m below ground level). Composition of the bacterial communities strongly varied across the samples; however, the bacteria participating in the sulfur cycle were common in all sulfidic waters. The shallowest borehole water (60 m bgl) was dominated by sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurimonas, Sulfurovum). In the waters collected from greater depths (148-300 m bgl), the prevalence of Betaproteobacteria (Comamonadaceae) and sulfate/sulfur-reducing Deltaproteobacteria (Desulfopila, Desulfomicrobium, MSBL7) was observed. Sulfate reducers (members of Clostridia: Candidatus Desulforudis) were the most abundant bacteria in the deepest borehole water (660 m bgl). Out of 850 bacterial OTUs, only one, affiliated with the Comamonadaceae family, was found abundant (>?1% of total bacterial sequences) in all samples. Contribution of Archaea to the whole microbial communities was lower than 0.5%. Archaeal communities did not differ across the samples and they consisted of Halobacteriaceae. Out of 372 archaeal OTUs, five, belonging to the four genera Natronomonas, Halorubrum, Halobellus, and Halorhabdus, were the most numerous.