Project description:AIMS:The mechanisms coordinating maturation with an environment-driven metabolic shift, a critical step in determining the developmental potential of human in vitro maturation (IVM) oocytes, remain to be elucidated. Here we explored the key genes regulating human oocyte maturation using single-cell RNA sequencing and illuminated the compensatory mechanism from a metabolic perspective by analyzing gene expression. RESULTS:Three key genes that encode CoA-related enzymes were screened from the RNA sequencing data. Two of them, ACAT1 and HADHA, were closely related to the regulation of substrate production in the Krebs cycle. Dysfunction of the Krebs cycle was induced by decreases in the activity of specific enzymes. Furthermore, the activator of these enzymes, the calcium concentration, was also decreased because of the failure of influx of exogenous calcium. Although release of endogenous calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria met the requirement for maturation, excessive release resulted in aneuploidy and developmental incompetence. High nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase expression induced NADPH dehydrogenation to compensate for the NADH shortage resulting from the dysfunction of the Krebs cycle. Importantly, high NADP+ levels activated DPYD to enhance the repair of DNA double-strand breaks to maintain euploidy. INNOVATION:The present study shows for the first time that exposure to the in vitro environment can lead to the decline of energy metabolism in human oocytes during maturation but that a compensatory action maintains their developmental competence. CONCLUSION:In vitro maturation of human oocytes is mediated through a cascade of competing and compensatory actions driven by genes encoding enzymes.
Project description:Aim: The mechanisms coordinating maturation with an environment-driven metabolic shift, a critical step in determining the developmental potential of human in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes, remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the key genes regulating human oocyte maturation using single-cell RNA sequencing and illuminated the compensatory mechanism from a metabolic perspective by analyzing gene expression. Results: Three key genes that encode CoA-related enzymes were screened from the RNA sequencing data. Two of them, ACAT1 and HADHA, were closely related to the regulation of substrate production in the Krebs cycle. Dysfunction of the Krebs cycle was induced by decreases in the activity of specific enzymes. Further, the activator of these enzymes, the calcium concentration, was also decreased because of the failure of influx of exogenous calcium. Although release of endogenous calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria met the requirement for maturation, excessive release resulted in aneuploidy and developmental incompetence. High nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase expression induced NADPH dehydrogenation to compensate for the NADH shortage resulting from the dysfunction of the Krebs cycle. Importantly, high NADP+ levels activated DPYD to enhance the repair of DNA double-strand breaks to maintain euploidy. Innovation: The present study shows for the first time that exposure to the in vitro environment can lead to the decline of energy metabolism in human oocytes during maturation but that a compensatory action maintains their developmental competence. Conclusions: In vitro maturation of human oocytes is mediated through a cascade of competing and compensatory actions driven by genes encoding enzymes. Overall design: Investigated the transcriptome characteristics of human oocytes matured in vitro and in vivo to gain a transcriptome-level understanding of how oocytes mature and to illuminate the differences between human IVM and in vivo (IVO) matured oocytes at the transcript level.
Project description:PURPOSE:Oocyte maturation is a complex process involving nuclear and cytoplasmic modulations, during which oocytes acquire their ability to become fertilized and support embryonic development. The oocyte is apparently "primed" for maturation during its development in the dominant follicle. As bovine oocytes immediately resume meiosis when cultured, it was hypothesized that delaying resumption of meiosis with cyclic nucleotide modulators before in vitro maturation (IVM) would allow the oocytes to acquire improved developmental competence. METHODS:We tested the Simulated Physiological Oocyte Maturation (SPOM) system that uses forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine for 2 h prior to IVM against two different systems of conventional IVM (Con-IVM). We evaluated the ultrastructure of matured oocytes and blastocysts and also assessed the expression of 96 genes related to embryo quality in the blastocysts. RESULTS:In summary, the SPOM system resulted in lower blastocyst rates than both Con-IVM systems (30?±?9.1 vs. 35?±?8.7; 29?±?2.6 vs. 38?±?2.8). Mature SPOM oocytes had significantly increased volume and number of vesicles, reduced volume and surface density of large smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters, and lower number of mitochondria than Con-IVM oocytes. SPOM blastocysts showed only subtle differences with parallel undulations of adjacent trophectoderm plasma membranes and peripherally localized ribosomes in cells of the inner cell mass compared with Con-IVM blastocysts. SPOM blastocysts, however, displayed significant downregulation of genes related to embryonic developmental potential when compared to Con-IVM blastocysts. CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that the use of the current version of the SPOM system may have adverse effects on oocytes and blastocysts calling for optimized protocols for improving oocyte competence.
Project description:To determine the multidrug-resistant transporter (MDR) activity in oocytes and their potential role in oocyte susceptibility to chemotherapy.Experimental laboratory study.University and academic center for reproductive medicine.Women with eggs retrieved for intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles and adult female FVBN and B6C3F1 mouse strains.Inhibition of MDR activity in oocytes.Efflux activity of MDRs with the use of quantitative fluorescent dye efflux, and oocyte cell death when exposed to chemotherapy.Oocytes effluxed fluorescent reporters, and this activity was significantly reduced in the presence of the MDR inhibitor PSC 833. Geminal vesicle oocytes were more efficient at efflux than metaphase 2 oocytes. Human oocytes exposed to cyclophosphamide and PSC 833 showed cell death with the use of two different viability assays compared with control samples and those exposed to cyclophosphamide alone. Immunoblots detected MDR-1 in all oocytes, with the greatest accumulation in the geminal vesicle stage.Oocytes have a vast repertoire of active MDRs. The implications of this study are that these protective mechanisms are important during oogenesis and that these activities change with maturation, increasing susceptibility to toxicants. Future directions may exploit the up-regulation of these transporters during gonadotoxic therapy.
Project description:In contrast to most other mammals, canine oocytes are ovulated in an immature state and undergo oocyte maturation within the oviduct during the estrus stage. The aim of the study was to investigate whether oviduct cells from the estrus stage affect the maturation of oocytes and show gene expression patterns related to oocyte maturation.We analyzed MAPK1/3, SMAD2/3, and BMP6/15 expression in oviduct cells, cumulus cells, and oocytes from anestrus, estrus, and diestrus stages. Next, we investigated the effect of co-culture with oviduct cells derived from the estrus stage upon in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocytes.There was significantly higher MAPK1/3 (1.42 ± 0.02 and 2.23 ± 0.06), SMAD2/3 (0.77 ± 0.03 and 2.39 ± 0.07), and BMP15 (2.21 ± 0.16) expression in oviduct cells at the estrus stage (P < 0.05). In cumulus cells, MAPK1 (1.26 ± 0.07), SMAD2/3 (0.82 ± 0.01, 1.04 ± 0.01), and BMP6 (13.09 ± 0.11) expression was significantly higher in the estrus stage (P < 0.05). In oocytes, significant upregulation of MAPK1/3 (14,960 ± 3121 and 1668 ± 253.4), SMAD3 (774.6 ± 79.62), and BMP6 (8500 ± 895.4) expression was found in the estrus stage (P < 0.05). After 72 h of IVM culture, a significantly higher maturation rate was observed in oocytes co-cultured with oviduct cells (10.0 ± 1.5%) than in the control group (3.2 ± 1.4%).We demonstrate that oviduct cells at the estrus stage highly expressed MAPK1/3, SMAD2/3, and BMP15. Furthermore, canine oviduct cells from the estrus stage enhance the culture environment for canine oocyte maturation.
Project description:LH triggers the maturation of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), which is followed by ovulation. These ovarian follicular responses to LH are mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors produced by granulosa cells and require the participation of oocyte-derived paracrine factors. However, it is not clear how oocytes coordinate with the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling to achieve COC maturation. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that oocytes promote the expression of EGFR by cumulus cells, thus enabling them to respond to the LH-induced EGF-like peptides. Egfr mRNA and protein expression were dramatically reduced in cumulus cells of mutant mice deficient in the production of the oocyte-derived paracrine factors growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15). Moreover, microsurgical removal of oocytes from wild-type COCs dramatically reduced expression of Egfr mRNA and protein, and these levels were restored by either coculture with oocytes or treatment with recombinant GDF9 or GDF9 plus recombinant BMP15. Blocking Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2/3 phosphorylation in vitro inhibited Egfr expression in wild-type COCs and in GDF9-treated wild-type cumulus cells, and conditional deletion of Smad2 and Smad3 genes in granulosa cells in vivo resulted in the reduction of Egfr mRNA in cumulus cells. These results indicate that oocytes promote expression of Egfr in cumulus cells, and a SMAD2/3-dependent pathway is involved in this process. At least two oocyte-derived growth factors, GDF9 and BMP15, are required for EGFR expression by cumulus cells.
Project description:Messenger RNA is remarkably stable during oocyte growth, thus enabling mRNAs to accumulate during the growth phase and thereby provide mRNAs that support early embryonic development. MSY2, a germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein, is implicated in regulating mRNA stability. MSY2 is essential for development because female Msy2(-/-) mice are infertile. We describe here the characterization of Msy2(-/-) oocytes. Mutant oocytes grow more slowly during the first wave of folliculogenesis, and maturation to and arrest at metaphase II is severely compromised because of aberrant spindle formation and chromosome congression. Consistent with MSY2 conferring mRNA stability is that the amount of poly(A)-containing RNA is reduced by ~25% in mutant oocytes. Stability of an exogenous mRNA injected into mutant oocytes is lower than when compared to their wild-type counterparts, and moreover, expression of wild-type MSY2 in mutant oocytes increases mRNA stability, whereas injection of a mutant form of MSY2 not capable of binding RNA does not. Transcription quiescence that normally occurs during the course of oocyte growth is not observed in mutant oocytes, and the transcriptome of mutant oocytes is markedly perturbed. These results, and those of previous studies, strongly implicate a central role of MSY2 in regulating mRNA stability.
Project description:We cloned the Xenopus laevis form of Gq alpha subunit to study its effects on oocyte maturation. Injection of Xenopus Gq alpha mRNA into stage 6 oocytes activated the phospholipase C/phosphatidylinositol pathway. The oocyte membrane became permeable to calcium ions and was able to generate transient inward currents (T(in)), due to the opening of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- channels. The T(in) amplitude developed over several hours and disappeared by 24 hr. Diacylglycerol levels were found to parallel the appearance and disappearance of the T(in). The concurrent decline of T(in) values and diacylglycerol was not due to a failure in the synthesis of Gq alpha protein, which was produced continuously for > 24 hr. After Xenopus Gq alpha mRNA injection, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) was variable (0-100%) in stage 6 oocytes, whereas none of the stage 4 oocytes underwent GVBD. In contrast, stage 6 oocytes injected with mRNA encoding the Go alpha G protein consistently underwent GVBD but did not acquire T(in). Our results show that activation of phospholipase C is not an absolute requisite for the induction of maturation, although in oocytes of some frogs phospholipase C activation can trigger a pathway to GVBD.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA) is synthetic organic compound that exhibits estrogen-like properties and it induces mitochondrial superoxide production. Melatonin (Mela) protects against BPA-mediated cell damage and apoptosis. However, the antioxidative effects of Mela against BPA-induced superoxide production in porcine oocytes are still not known. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of Mela against BPA-derived superoxide on oocyte maturation in pigs. To investigate the effects of the superoxide specific scavenger, Mito-TEMPO, on porcine oocyte maturation in response to BPA exposure apoptosis proteins, we treated the oocytes with Mito-TEMPO (0.1 µM) after pre-treating them with BPA (75 µM) for 22 h. As expected, the reduction in meiotic maturation and cumulus cell expansion of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) in the BPA (75 µM) treated group was recovered (p < 0.01) by treatment with Mito-TEMPO (0.1 µM). An increase in the levels of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins (AIF, cleaved Cas 3 and cleaved Parp1) in response to BPA-induced damage was also reduced by Mito-TEMPO treatment in porcine COCs. Interestingly, we confirmed the positive effects of Mela with respect to superoxide production upon BPA exposure during oocyte maturation and also confirmed the reduction in mitochondrial apoptosis in Mela (0.1 µM)-treated porcine COCs. These results provide evidence for the first time that antioxidative effects of Mela on BPA-derived superoxide improve porcine oocyte maturation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Without intensive selection, the majority of bovine oocytes submitted to in vitro embryo production (IVP) fail to develop to the blastocyst stage. This is attributed partly to their maturation status and competences. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array, global mRNA expression analysis of immature (GV) and in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes was carried out to characterize the transcriptome of bovine oocytes and then use a variety of approaches to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM was real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis. RESULTS: 8489 transcripts were detected across the two oocyte groups, of which ~25.0% (2117 transcripts) were differentially expressed (p < 0.001); corresponding to 589 over-expressed and 1528 under-expressed transcripts in the IVM oocytes compared to their immature counterparts. Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of ?-amanitin. Subsets of the differentially expressed genes were also validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the gene expression data was classified according to gene ontology and pathway enrichment. Numerous cell cycle linked (CDC2, CDK5, CDK8, HSPA2, MAPK14, TXNL4B), molecular transport (STX5, STX17, SEC22A, SEC22B), and differentiation (NACA) related genes were found to be among the several over-expressed transcripts in GV oocytes compared to the matured counterparts, while ANXA1, PLAU, STC1and LUM were among the over-expressed genes after oocyte maturation. CONCLUSION: Using sequential experiments, we have shown and confirmed transcriptional changes during oocyte maturation. This dataset provides a unique reference resource for studies concerned with the molecular mechanisms controlling oocyte meiotic maturation in cattle, addresses the existing conflicting issue of transcription during meiotic maturation and contributes to the global goal of improving assisted reproductive technology.