Project description:BACKGROUND:Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC), is capable of infecting several host species, including humans. Recently, ancient DNA from this organism was recovered from pre-Columbian mummies of Peru, sparking debate over the origin and frequency of tuberculosis in the Americas prior to European colonization. RESULTS:We present the first comparative genomic study of this bacterial species, starting from the genome sequencing of two M. pinnipedii isolates (MP1 and MP2) obtained from different organs of a stranded South American sea lion. Our results indicate that MP1 and MP2 differ by 113 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and 46 indels, constituting the first report of a mixed-strain infection in a sea lion. SNP annotation analyses indicate that genes of the VapBC family, a toxin-antitoxin system, and genes related to cell wall remodeling are under evolutionary pressure for protein sequence change in these strains. OrthoMCL analysis with seven modern isolates of M. pinnipedii shows that these strains have highly similar proteomes. Gene variations were only marginally associated with hypothetical proteins and PE/PPE (proline-glutamate and proline-proline-glutamate, respectively) gene families. We also detected large deletions in ancient and modern M. pinnipedii strains, including a few occurring only in modern strains, indicating a process of genome reduction occurring over the past one thousand years. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest the existence of two modern clusters of M. pinnipedii associated with geographic location, and possibly host species, and one basal node associated with the ancient M. pinnipedii strains. Previously described MiD3 and MiD4 deletions may have occurred independently, twice, over the evolutionary course of the MTBC. CONCLUSION:The presence of superinfection (i.e. mixed-strain infection) in this sea lion suggests that M. pinnipedii is highly endemic in this population. Mycobacterium pinnipedii proteomes of the studied isolates showed a high degree of conservation, despite being under genomic decay when compared to M. tuberculosis. This finding indicates that further genomes need to be sequenced and analyzed to increase the chances of finding variably present genes among strains or that M. pinnipedii genome remodeling occurred prior to bacterial speciation.
Project description:Mycobacterium pinnipedii causes tuberculosis in a number of pinniped species, and transmission to cattle and humans has been reported. The aims of this study were to: characterize the pathology and prevalence of tuberculosis in New Zealand marine mammals; use molecular diagnostic methods to confirm and type the causal agent; and to explore relationships between type and host characteristics. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 30 pinnipeds and one cetacean. Most affected pinnipeds had involvement of the pulmonary system, supporting inhalation as the most common route of infection, although ingestion was a possible route in the cetacean. PCR for the RD2 gene confirmed M. pinnipedii as the causal agent in 23/31 (74%) cases (22 using DNA from cultured organisms, and one using DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue), including the first published report in a cetacean. RD2 PCR results were compared for 22 cases where both cultured organisms and FFPE tissues were available, with successful identification of M. pinnipedii in 7/22 (31.8%). In cases with moderate to large numbers of acid-fast bacilli, RD2 PCR on FFPE tissue provided a rapid, inexpensive method for confirming M. pinnipedii infection without the need for culture. VNTR typing distinguished New Zealand M. pinnipedii isolates from M. pinnipedii isolated from Australian pinnipeds and from common types of M. bovis in New Zealand. Most (16/18) M. pinnipedii isolates from New Zealand sea lions were one of two common VNTR types whereas the cetacean isolate was a type detected previously in New Zealand cattle.
Project description:In a previous report, we described a PCR protocol for the differentiation of the various species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) on the basis of genomic deletions (R. C. Huard, L. C. de Oliveira Lazzarini, W. R. Butler, D. van Soolingen, and J. L. Ho, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:1637-1650, 2003). That report also provided a broad cross-comparison of several previously identified, phylogenetically relevant, long-sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (LSPs and SNPs, respectively). In the present companion report, we expand upon the previous work (i) by continuing the evaluation of known MTC phylogenetic markers in a larger collection of tubercle bacilli (n = 125), (ii) by evaluating additional recently reported MTC species-specific and interspecific polymorphisms, and (iii) by describing the identification and distribution of a number of novel LSPs and SNPs. Notably, new genomic deletions were found in various Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, new species-specific SNPs were identified for "Mycobacterium canettii," Mycobacterium microti, and Mycobacterium pinnipedii, and, for the first time, intraspecific single-nucleotide DNA differences were discovered for the dassie bacillus, the oryx bacillus, and the two Mycobacterium africanum subtype I variants. Surprisingly, coincident polymorphisms linked one M. africanum subtype I genotype with the dassie bacillus and M. microti with M. pinnipedii, thereby suggesting closer evolutionary ties within each pair of species than had been previously thought. Overall, the presented data add to the genetic definitions of several MTC organisms as well as fine-tune current models for the evolutionary history of the MTC.
Project description:Haloalkane dehalogenases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond by a hydrolytic mechanism. Genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis contain at least two open reading frames coding for the polypeptides showing a high sequence similarity with biochemically characterized haloalkane dehalogenases. We describe here the cloning of the haloalkane dehalogenase genes dmbA and dmbB from M. bovis 5033/66 and demonstrate the dehalogenase activity of their translation products. Both of these genes are widely distributed among species of the M. tuberculosis complex, including M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. africanum, M. caprae, M. microti, and M. pinnipedii, as shown by the PCR screening of 48 isolates from various hosts. DmbA and DmbB proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The DmbB protein had to be expressed in a fusion with thioredoxin to obtain a soluble protein sample. The temperature optimum of DmbA and DmbB proteins determined with 1,2-dibromoethane is 45 degrees C. The melting temperature assessed by circular dichroism spectroscopy of DmbA is 47 degrees C and DmbB is 57 degrees C. The pH optimum of DmbA depends on composition of a buffer with maximal activity at 9.0. DmbB had a single pH optimum at pH 6.5. Mycobacteria are currently the only genus known to carry more than one haloalkane dehalogenase gene, although putative haloalkane dehalogenases can be inferred in more then 20 different bacterial species by comparative genomics. The evolution and distribution of haloalkane dehalogenases among mycobacteria is discussed.
Project description:We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RD(Rio), and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C((-17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers.
Project description:This work reports the draft genome sequences of the Mycobacterium bovis strains M1009 and M1010, isolated from the lymph nodes of two infected cows on a beef farm in Paraguay. Comparative genomics between these strains and other regional strains may provide more insights regarding M. bovis epidemiology in South America.
Project description:A better understanding of essential cellular functions in pathogenic bacteria is important for the development of more effective antimicrobial agents. We performed a comprehensive identification of essential genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the major causative agent of tuberculosis, using a combination of transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) and comparative genomic analysis. To identify conditionally essential genes by Tn-seq, we used media with different nutrient compositions. Although many conditional gene essentialities were affected by the presence of relevant nutrient sources, we also found that the essentiality of genes in a subset of metabolic pathways was unaffected by metabolite availability. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that not all essential genes identified by Tn-seq were fully conserved within the M. tuberculosis complex, including some existing antitubercular drug target genes. In addition, we utilized an available M. tuberculosis genome-scale metabolic model, iSM810, to predict M. tuberculosis gene essentiality in silico Comparing the sets of essential genes experimentally identified by Tn-seq to those predicted in silico reveals the capabilities and limitations of gene essentiality predictions, highlighting the complexity of M. tuberculosis essential metabolic functions. This study provides a promising platform to study essential cellular functions in M. tuberculosis IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes 10 million cases of tuberculosis (TB), resulting in over 1 million deaths each year. TB therapy is challenging because it requires a minimum of 6 months of treatment with multiple drugs. Protracted treatment times and the emergent spread of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis necessitate the identification of novel targets for drug discovery to curb this global health threat. Essential functions, defined as those indispensable for growth and/or survival, are potential targets for new antimicrobial drugs. In this study, we aimed to define gene essentialities of M. tuberculosis on a genomewide scale to comprehensively identify potential targets for drug discovery. We utilized a combination of experimental (functional genomics) and in silico approaches (comparative genomics and flux balance analysis). Our functional genomics approach identified sets of genes whose essentiality was affected by nutrient availability. Comparative genomics revealed that not all essential genes were fully conserved within the M. tuberculosis complex. Comparing sets of essential genes identified by functional genomics to those predicted by flux balance analysis highlighted gaps in current knowledge regarding M. tuberculosis metabolic capabilities. Thus, our study identifies numerous potential antitubercular drug targets and provides a comprehensive picture of the complexity of M. tuberculosis essential cellular functions.
Project description:Mycobacteriophage SWU1 is a newly isolated phage from soil sample collected in Sichuan province, China using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 as host. Plaque, phage morphology and one-step growth curve were characterized. The complete genomic sequence of phage SWU1 was determined by shotgun sequencing. The ends of SWU1 were determined. Structural proteins of SWU1 were analyzed by NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. Seven ORFs were identified as structural protein encoded by SWU1 genome. The genetic basis underlying the SWU1 plaque was explored using comparative genomics. Prophages homologous to SWU1 were identified in two pathogens, Segniliparus rugosus ATCC BAA-974 and Mycobacterium rhodesiae JS60. Genus Segniliparus is a member of the order Corynebacteriales. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Mycobacterium prophages in different genera.