Project description:The receptor Flt3 and its ligand Flt3L are both critical for dendritic cell (DC) development, but DC deficiency is more severe in Flt3l-/- mice than in Flt3-/- mice. This has led to speculation that Flt3L binds to another receptor that also supports DC development. However, we found that Flt3L administration does not generate DCs in Flt3-/- mice, arguing against a second receptor. Instead, Flt3-/- DC progenitors matured in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or stem cell factor, and deletion of Csf1r in Flt3-/- mice further reduced DC development, indicating that these cytokines could compensate for Flt3. Surprisingly, Flt3-/- DC progenitors displayed enhanced M-CSF signaling, suggesting that loss of Flt3 increased responsiveness to other cytokines. In agreement, deletion of Flt3 in Flt3l-/- mice paradoxically rescued their severe DC deficiency. Thus, multiple cytokines can support DC development, and the discrepancy between Flt3-/- and Flt3l-/- mice results from the increased sensitivity of Flt3-/- progenitors to these cytokines.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine whether there are any gene expression changes in cDC1s and cDC2s from WT, Flt3 KO, or Flt3L KO mice. Specifically whether developing in the absence of Flt3 signaling had any effects on the gene expression of the cDCs Overall design: Mature cDC1s and cDC2s were sorted from spleens of WT, Flt3 KO, and Flt3L KO mice, there were two biological replicates for each cell type from each genotype
Project description:Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T (CAR-T) cells have extraordinary effect in treating lymphoblastic leukemia. However, treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using CAR-T cells remains limited to date. Leukemogenesis always relates with the abnormalities of cytogenetics, and nearly one third of AML patients have activating mutations in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) which reminded poor prognosis. Considering the FLT3 expressed in AML patients' blast cells, it may be a new candidate target for CAR-T therapy to treat FLT3+ AML, especially patients harboring FLT3-ITD mutation.The FLT3L CAR-T using FLT3 ligand as recognizing domain was constructed. The specific cytotoxicity against FLT3+ leukemia cell lines, primary AML cells, and normal hematopoietic progenitor stem cells (HPSCs) in vitro were evaluated. In addition, FLT3+ AML mouse model was used to assess the effect of FLT3L CAR-T therapy in vivo.FLT3L CAR-T cells could specifically kill FLT3+ leukemia cell lines and AML patients' bone marrow mononuclear cells in vitro (with or without FLT3 mutation) and have more potent cytotoxicity to FLT3-ITD cells. In a human FLT3+ AML xenograft mouse model, FLT3L CAR-T cells could significantly prolong the survival of mice. Furthermore, it was found that FLT3L CAR-T cells could activate the FLT3/ERK signaling pathway of FLT3+ leukemia cells with wild-type FLT3; meanwhile, it had no inhibitory effects on the colony formation of CD34+ stem cells derived from normal human umbilical cord blood.The ligand-based FLT3L CAR-T cells could be a promising strategy for FLT3+ AML treatment, especially those carried FLT3 mutation.
Project description:Flt3 signaling plays a crucial role in regulating the survival and differentiation of lymphoid progenitors into B cell precursors (BCPs) in bone marrow. To define further the role of Flt3 signaling in lymphoid progenitor survival, mice deficient in Flt3 ligand that also expressed a Bcl2 transgene (E?-bcl2tg flt3l(-/-)) were generated. Intracellular flow cytometry established transgene expression in primitive hematopoietic progenitors, including lineage-negative Sca-1(+) c-kit(+) (LSK(+)) CD27(-) cells enriched for functional hematopoietic stem cells. Compared with flt3l(-/-) mice, E?-bcl2tg flt3l(-/-) mice had significantly increased multipotential progenitors (MPPs), IL-7R(+) common lymphoid progenitors, and B cell precursors. To determine whether forced expression of Bcl2 was sufficient to restore lymphoid priming in the absence of Flt3 signaling E?-bcl2tg flt3l(-/-)rag1-gfp(+) mice were generated. Analysis of E?-bcl2tg flt3l(-/-)rag1-gfp(+) mice revealed that the Bcl2 transgene had no effect on lymphoid priming before CD19 expression. Thus, forced expression of a survival gene can bypass the requirement for threshold levels of Flt3 signaling requisite for lymphoid priming. Temporal Flt3 ligand (FL) replacement therapy in flt3l(-/-) mice revealed specific requirements for Flt3 signaling in the expansion and maintenance of Flt3(+hi) MPP and Flt3(+) all lymphoid progenitors, but not Flt3(+) B lymphoid progenitors (BLPs), the immediate precursors of BCPs. BCPs were restored after temporal in vivo FL treatment, albeit with delayed kinetics. Together, these results show that Flt3 regulates the proliferation, survival, and maintenance of developmental stage-specific hematopoietic progenitors that give rise to BCPs.
Project description:DCs are critical for initiating immunity. The current paradigm in vaccine biology is that DCs migrating from peripheral tissue and classical lymphoid-resident DCs (cDCs) cooperate in the draining LNs to initiate priming and proliferation of T cells. Here, we observe subcutaneous immunity is Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) dependent. Flt3L is rapidly secreted after immunization; Flt3 deletion reduces T cell responses by 50%. Flt3L enhances global T cell and humoral immunity as well as both the numbers and antigen capture capacity of migratory DCs (migDCs) and LN-resident cDCs. Surprisingly, however, we find immunity is controlled by cDCs and actively tempered in vivo by migDCs. Deletion of Langerin(+) DC or blockade of DC migration improves immunity. Consistent with an immune-regulatory role, transcriptomic analyses reveals different skin migDC subsets in both mouse and human cluster together, and share immune-suppressing gene expression and regulatory pathways. These data reveal that protective immunity to protein vaccines is controlled by Flt3L-dependent, LN-resident cDCs.
Project description:Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) is expressed on progenitor cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) is detectable during homeostasis and increases in hypoplasia due to genetic defects or treatment with cytoreductive agents. Conversely, Flt3+ AML is associated with depletion of Flt3L to undetectable levels. After induction chemotherapy, Flt3L is restored in patients entering complete remission (CR) but remains depressed in those with refractory disease. Weekly sampling reveals marked differences in the kinetics of Flt3L response during the first 6 weeks of treatment, proportionate to the clearance of blasts and cellularity of the bone marrow. In the UK NCRI AML17 trial, Flt3L was measured at day 26 in a subgroup of 140 patients with Flt3 mutation randomized to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lestaurtinib or placebo. In these patients, attainment of CR was associated with higher Flt3L at day 26 (Mann-Whitney UP < .0001). Day 26 Flt3L was also associated with survival; Flt3L ?291 pg/mL was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS), and Flt3L >1185 pg/mL was associated with higher overall survival (OS; P = .0119). The separation of EFS and OS curves increased when minimal residual disease (MRD) status was combined with Flt3L measurement, and Flt3L retained a near-significant association with survival after adjusting for MRD in a proportional hazards model. Serial measurement of Flt3L in patients who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant for AML illustrates the potential value of monitoring Flt3L to identify relapse. Measurement of Flt3L is a noninvasive test with the potential to inform clinical decisions in patients with AML.
Project description:Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunoregulatory function in human autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that the number of peripheral tolerogenic CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) and the levels of serum FLT3L are significantly decreased in SLE patients especially with lupus nephritis, compared to healthy controls. Transplantation of allogeneic umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) significantly up-regulates peripheral blood CD1c+DCs and serum FLT3L. Mechanistically, UC-MSCs express FLT3L that binds to FLT3 on CD1c+DCs to promote the proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of tolerogenic CD1c+DCs. Conversely, reduction of FLT3L with small interfering RNA in MSCs abolishes the up-regulation of tolerogenic CD1c+DCs in lupus patients treated with MSCs. Interferon-γ induces FLT3L expression in UC-MSCs through JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Thus, allogeneic MSCs might suppress inflammation in lupus through up-regulating tolerogenic DCs.
Project description:The Flt3-Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) pathway is critically involved in the differentiation and homeostasis of myeloid cells, including dendritic cells (DC); however, its role in the expansion and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) has not been determined. In this article, we describe the ability of Flt3L to expand and activate murine MDSC capable of suppressing allograft rejection upon adoptive transfer. Although Flt3L expands and augments the stimulatory capacity of myeloid DC, MDSC expanded by Flt3L have increased suppressive activity. Although STAT3 is considered the central transcription factor for MDSC expansion, inhibition and genetic ablation of STAT3 did not block, but rather augmented, Flt3L-mediated MDSC expansion. MDSC suppressive function, preserved when STAT3 inhibition was removed, was reduced by genetic STAT3 deletion. Both STAT3 inhibition and deletion reduced Flt3L-mediated DC expansion, signifying that STAT3 had reciprocal effects on suppressive MDSC and immunostimulatory DC expansion. Together, these findings enhance our understanding of the immunomodulatory properties of Flt3L.