Project description:Here, we describe an approach to enrich newly transcribed RNAs from primary mouse neurons using 4-thiouridine (s4U) metabolic labeling and solid phase chemistry. This one-step enrichment procedure captures s4U-RNA by using highly efficient methane thiosulfonate (MTS) chemistry in an immobilized format. Like solution-based methods, this solid-phase enrichment can distinguish mature RNAs (mRNA) with differential stability, and can be used to reveal transient RNAs such as enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) from short metabolic labeling. Most importantly, the efficiency of this solid-phase chemistry made possible the first large scale measurements of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation rates in mouse cortical neurons. Thus, our approach provides the means to study regulation of RNA metabolism in specific tissue contexts as a means to better understand gene expression in vivo. Overall design: s4U metabolic labeling of RNA in K562 cells and mouse cortical neurons, followed by biochemical enrichment of labeled RNA with solid-phase activated disulfides, and RNA sequencing
Project description:Here, we describe an approach to enrich newly transcribed RNAs from primary mouse neurons using 4-thiouridine (s4U) metabolic labeling and solid phase chemistry. This one-step enrichment procedure captures s4U-RNA by using highly efficient methane thiosulfonate (MTS) chemistry in an immobilized format. Like solution-based methods, this solid-phase enrichment can distinguish mature RNAs (mRNA) with differential stability, and can be used to reveal transient RNAs such as enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) from short metabolic labeling. Most importantly, the efficiency of this solid-phase chemistry made possible the first large scale measurements of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation rates in mouse cortical neurons. Thus, our approach provides the means to study regulation of RNA metabolism in specific tissue contexts as a means to better understand gene expression in vivo.
Project description:Attachment of a growing peptide chain to a glycylaminomethyl resin via a thioglycinamide bond is compatible with Fmoc-chemistry solid-phase peptide synthesis. Subsequent S-alkylation of the thioamide gives a thioimide that, on treatment with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid, releases the peptide from the resin in the form of a C-terminal thioester.
Project description:The synthesis of polypeptides on solid phase via mediation by isonitriles is described. The acyl donor is a thioacid, which presumably reacts with the isonitrile to generate a thio-formimidate carboxylate mixed anhydride intermediate. Applications of this chemistry to reiterative solid-phase peptide synthesis as well as solid-phase fragment coupling are described.
Project description:New protecting group chemistry is used to greatly simplify imaging probe production. Temperature and organic solvent-sensitive biomolecules are covalently attached to a biotin-bearing dioxaborolane, which facilitates antibody immobilization on a streptavidin-agarose solid-phase support. Treatment with aqueous fluoride triggers fluoride-labeled antibody release from the solid phase, separated from unlabeled antibody, and creates [(18)F]-trifluoroborate-antibody for positron emission tomography and near-infrared fluorescent (PET/NIRF) multimodality imaging. This dioxaborolane-fluoride reaction is bioorthogonal, does not inhibit antigen binding, and increases [(18)F]-specific activity relative to solution-based radiosyntheses. Two applications are investigated: an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) monoclonal antibody (mAb) that labels prostate tumors and Cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mAb (FDA approved) that labels lung adenocarcinoma tumors. Colocalized, tumor-specific NIRF and PET imaging confirm utility of the new technology. The described chemistry should allow labeling of many commercial systems, diabodies, nanoparticles, and small molecules for dual modality imaging of many diseases.
Project description:Chemical protein synthesis gives access to well-defined native or modified proteins that are useful for studying protein structure and function. The majority of proteins synthesized up to now have been produced using native chemical ligation (NCL) in solution. Although there are significant advantages to assembling large peptides or proteins by solid phase ligation, reports of such approaches are rare. We report a novel solid phase method for protein synthesis which relies on the chemistry of the acetoacetyl group and ketoxime ligation for the attachment of the peptide to the solid support, and on a tandem transoximation/rearrangement process for the detachment of the target protein. Importantly, we show that the combination of solid phase and solution ligation techniques facilitates the production of a challenging and biologically active protein made of 180 amino acids. We show also that the solid phase method enables the purification of complex peptide segments through a chemoselective solid phase capture/release approach.
Project description:We demonstrate that the Knoevenagel condensation can be exploited in combinatorial synthesis on the solid phase. Condensation products from such reactions were structurally characterized, and their Michael reactivity with thiol and phosphine nucleophiles is described. Cyanoacrylamides were previously reported to react reversibly with thiols, and notably, we show that dilution into low pH buffer can trap covalent adducts, which are isolable via chromatography. Finally, we synthesized both traditional and DNA-encoded one-bead, one-compound libraries containing cyanoacrylamides as a source of cysteine-reactive reversibly covalent protein ligands.
Project description:We report the use of an array of electrically gated ~200 nm solid-state pores as nanofluidic transistors to manipulate the capture and passage of DNA. The devices are capable of reversibly altering the rate of DNA capture by over 3 orders of magnitude using sub-1 V biasing of a gate electrode. This efficient gating originates from the counter-balance of electrophoresis and electroosmosis, as revealed by quantitative numerical simulations. Such a reversible electronically tunable biomolecular switch may be used to manipulate nucleic acid delivery in a fluidic circuit, and its development is an important first step toward active control of DNA motion through solid-state nanopores for sensing applications.
Project description:Facile automated biomacromolecule synthesis is at the heart of blending synthetic and biologic worlds. Full access to abiotic/biotic synthetic diversity first occurred when chemistry was developed to grow nucleic acids and peptides from reversibly immobilized precursors. Protein-polymer conjugates, however, have always been synthesized in solution in multi-step, multi-day processes that couple innovative chemistry with challenging purification. Here we report the generation of protein-polymer hybrids synthesized by protein-ATRP on reversible immobilization supports (PARIS). We utilized modified agarose beads to covalently and reversibly couple to proteins in amino-specific reactions. We then modified reversibly immobilized proteins with protein-reactive ATRP initiators and, after ATRP, we released and analyzed the protein polymers. The activity and stability of PARIS-synthesized and solution-synthesized conjugates demonstrated that PARIS was an effective, rapid, and simple method to generate protein-polymer conjugates. Automation of PARIS significantly reduced synthesis/purification timelines, thereby opening a path to changing how to generate protein-polymer conjugates.
Project description:Diketopiperazine (DKP) units are found in many bioactive small molecules. Here we report facile chemistry for incorporating diverse DKP units within peptoid and peptoid-like libraries made by solid-phase split and pool synthesis.