Project description:The balance between tolerogenic and inflammatory responses determines immune homeostasis in the gut. Dysbiosis and a defective host defense against invading intestinal bacteria can shift this balance via bacterial-derived metabolites and trigger chronic inflammation. We show that the short chain fatty acid butyrate modulates monocyte to macrophage differentiation by promoting antimicrobial effector functions. The presence of butyrate modulates antimicrobial activity via a shift in macrophage metabolism and reduction in mTOR activity. This mechanism is furthermore dependent on the inhibitory function of butyrate on histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) driving transcription of a set of antimicrobial peptides including calprotectin. The increased antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species is not associated with increased production of conventional cytokines. Butyrate imprints antimicrobial activity of intestinal macrophages in vivo. Our data suggest that commensal bacteria derived butyrate stabilize gut homeostasis by promoting antimicrobial host defense pathways in monocytes that differentiate into intestinal macrophages. Overall design: Paired samples of control and butyrate-treated macrophages prepared from two individuals.
Project description:Host microbial cross-talk is essential to maintain intestinal homeostasis. However, maladaptation of this response through microbial dysbiosis or defective host defense toward invasive intestinal bacteria can result in chronic inflammation. We have shown that macrophages differentiated in the presence of the bacterial metabolite butyrate display enhanced antimicrobial activity. Butyrate-induced antimicrobial activity was associated with a shift in macrophage metabolism, a reduction in mTOR kinase activity, increased LC3-associated host defense and anti-microbial peptide production in the absence of an increased inflammatory cytokine response. Butyrate drove this monocyte to macrophage differentiation program through histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) inhibition. Administration of butyrate induced antimicrobial activity in intestinal macrophages in vivo and increased resistance to enteropathogens. Our data suggest that (1) increased intestinal butyrate might represent a strategy to bolster host defense without tissue damaging inflammation and (2) that pharmacological HDAC3 inhibition might drive selective macrophage functions toward antimicrobial host defense.
Project description:Commensal gut microflora and dietary fiber protect against colonic inflammation and colon cancer through unknown targets. Butyrate, a bacterial product from fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon, has been implicated in this process. GPR109A (encoded by Niacr1) is a receptor for butyrate in the colon. GPR109A is also a receptor for niacin, which is also produced by gut microbiota and suppresses intestinal inflammation. Here we showed that Gpr109a signaling promoted anti-inflammatory properties in colonic macrophages and dendritic cells and enabled them to induce differentiation of Treg cells and IL-10-producing T cells. Moreover, Gpr109a was essential for butyrate-mediated induction of IL-18 in colonic epithelium. Consequently, Niacr1(-/-) mice were susceptible to development of colonic inflammation and colon cancer. Niacin, a pharmacological Gpr109a agonist, suppressed colitis and colon cancer in a Gpr109a-dependent manner. Thus, Gpr10a has an essential role in mediating the beneficial effects of gut microbiota and dietary fiber in colon.
Project description:The intestinal microbiota contributes to the global wellbeing of their host by their fundamental role in the induction and maintenance of a healthy immune system. Commensal bacteria shape the mucosal immune system by influencing the proportion and the activation state of anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Treg) by metabolites that are still only partially unravelled. Microbiota members such as Clostridiales provide a transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)-rich environment that promotes the accumulation of Treg cells in the gut. The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) take a central part in this process, as they are a major source of TGF?1 upon bacterial colonisation. In this study, we investigated which gut commensal bacteria were able to regulate the TGFB1 human promoter in IECs using supernatants from cultured bacteria. We reported that Firmicutes and Fusobacteria supernatants were the most potent TGFB1 modulators in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that butyrate was the main metabolite in bacterial supernatants accounting for TGF?1 increase. This butyrate-driven effect was independent of the G-protein coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43 and GPR109a, the transporter MCT1 as well as the transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1 present on TGFB1 promoter. Interestingly, HDAC inhibitors were inducing a similar TGFB1 increase suggesting that butyrate acted through its HDAC inhibitor properties. Finally, our results showed that SP1 was the main transcription factor mediating the HDAC inhibitor effect of butyrate on TGFB1 expression. This is, to our knowledge, the first characterisation of the mechanisms underlying TGFB1 regulation in IEC by commensal bacteria derived butyrate.
Project description:Commensal bacteria are crucial for the development and maintenance of a healthy immune system therefore contributing to the global well-being of their host. A wide variety of metabolites produced by commensal bacteria are influencing host health but the characterization of the multiple molecular mechanisms involved in host-microbiota interactions is still only partially unraveled. The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) take a central part in the host-microbiota dialogue by inducing the first microbial-derived immune signals. Amongst the numerous effector molecules modulating the immune responses produced by IECs, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) is essential for gut homeostasis. IDO-1 expression is dependent on the microbiota and despites its central role, how the commensal bacteria impacts its expression is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the impact of individual cultivable commensal bacteria on IDO-1 transcriptional expression and found that the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate was the main metabolite controlling IDO-1 expression in human primary IECs and IEC cell-lines. This butyrate-driven effect was independent of the G-protein coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109a and of the transcription factors SP1, AP1, and PPAR? for which binding sites were reported in the IDO-1 promoter. We demonstrated for the first time that butyrate represses IDO-1 expression by two distinct mechanisms. Firstly, butyrate decreases STAT1 expression leading to the inhibition of the IFN?-dependent and phosphoSTAT1-driven transcription of IDO-1. In addition, we described a second mechanism by which butyrate impairs IDO-1 transcription in a STAT1-independent manner that could be attributed to its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor property. In conclusion, our results showed that IDO-1 expression is down-regulated by butyrate via a dual mechanism: the reduction of STAT1 level and the HDAC inhibitor property of SCFAs.
Project description:Metabolites from intestinal microbes modulate the mucosal immune system by regulating the polarization and expansion of T cells. Whether the microbial metabolites influence macrophage polarization, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that the large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, facilitates M2 macrophage polarization, in vitro and in vivo. The supernatant from butyrate-treated M2 macrophage increased the migration and enhanced the wound closure rate of MLE-12 cells. Butyrate attenuated intestinal inflammation in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, with a significant increase in colonic expression of the M2 macrophage-associated protein, Arg1. M2 macrophage treated with butyrate, had increased activation of the H3K9/STAT6 signaling pathway, suggesting a mechanism for butyrate facilitated M2 macrophage polarization. Collectively, our study indicated that commensal microbe-derived butyrate is a novel activator of STAT6-mediated transcription through H3K9 acetylation driving M2 macrophage polarization, and delineated new insights into the immune interplay underlying inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells.
Project description:Background:Dietary fiber is effective for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its adaptors are potential targets for CRC therapy. Butyrate, a metabolite of dietary fiber, is a new, highly safe type of targeted drug. Methods:In this study, Cell Counting Kit-8 cell viability and wound healing assays, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and xenograft tumor mouse models were used to evaluate the anticancer effect of butyrate and its possible mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Results:Dietary fiber and sodium butyrate (NaB) decreased CRC burden by decreasing IL-6 receptor gp130 and blocking IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 axis activation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, NaB reduced the gp130 protein level by regulating its degradation rate via targeting TRAF5. Conclusions:The fiber metabolite butyrate inhibits CRC development by reducing gp130 via TRAF5.
Project description:Given the trillions of microbes that inhabit the mammalian intestines, the host immune system must constantly maintain a balance between tolerance to commensals and immunity against pathogens to avoid unnecessary immune responses against otherwise harmless bacteria. Misregulated responses can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The mechanisms by which the immune system maintains this critical balance remain largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that the short-chain fatty acid n-butyrate, which is secreted in high amounts by commensal bacteria, can modulate the function of intestinal macrophages, the most abundant immune cell type in the lamina propria. Treatment of macrophages with n-butyrate led to the down-regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, IL-6, and IL-12, but did not affect levels of TNF-? or MCP-1. These effects were independent of toll-like receptor signaling and activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, two pathways that could be affected by short-chain fatty acids. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that suggest that these effects are due to the inhibition of histone deacetylases by n-butyrate. These findings elucidate a pathway in which the host may maintain tolerance to intestinal microbiota by rendering lamina propria macrophages hyporesponsive to commensal bacteria through the down-regulation of proinflammatory effectors.
Project description:Commensal bacteria shapes gut immune system. Colonization bacteria increase the frequency of regulatory T cells, however, the molecular mechanisms has not yet been unknown. To reveal the mechanism, we isolated Naïve CD4+ T cells from spleen of C57BL/6 mice and cultured the cells under Treg-inducing condition culture in the presence or absence of butyrate, a metabolite produced by commensal bacteria. Naïve T cells were isolated from spleen and were cultured in the presence of IL-2, TGF-beta and in the presence or absene of Butyrate. RNA was extracted at Day 2