Project description:Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are key steps in the control of gene expression and mutations in genes regulating each of these processes are common in leukaemia1,2. Despite the frequent overlap of mutations affecting epigenetic regulation and splicing in leukaemia, how these processes influence one another to promote leukaemogenesis is not understood and, to our knowledge, there is no functional evidence that mutations in RNA splicing factors initiate leukaemia. Here, through analyses of transcriptomes from 982 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, we identified frequent overlap of mutations in IDH2 and SRSF2 that together promote leukaemogenesis through coordinated effects on the epigenome and RNA splicing. Whereas mutations in either IDH2 or SRSF2 imparted distinct splicing changes, co-expression of mutant IDH2 altered the splicing effects of mutant SRSF2 and resulted in more profound splicing changes than either mutation alone. Consistent with this, co-expression of mutant IDH2 and SRSF2 resulted in lethal myelodysplasia with proliferative features in vivo and enhanced self-renewal in a manner not observed with either mutation alone. IDH2 and SRSF2 double-mutant cells exhibited aberrant splicing and reduced expression of INTS3, a member of the integrator complex3, concordant with increased stalling of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Aberrant INTS3 splicing contributed to leukaemogenesis in concert with mutant IDH2 and was dependent on mutant SRSF2 binding to cis elements in INTS3 mRNA and increased DNA methylation of INTS3. These data identify a pathogenic crosstalk between altered epigenetic state and splicing in a subset of leukaemias, provide functional evidence that mutations in splicing factors drive myeloid malignancy development, and identify spliceosomal changes as a mediator of IDH2-mutant leukaemogenesis.
Project description:Mutation accumulation and epigenetic alterations in genes are important for carcinogenesis. Because leukemogenesis-related signal pathways have been investigated and microarray sample data have been produced in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and normal cells, systems analysis in coupling pathways becomes possible. Based on system modeling and identification, we could construct the coupling pathways and their associated gene regulatory networks using microarray sample data. By applying system theory to the estimated system model in coupling pathways, we can then obtain transductivity sensitivity, basal sensitivity and error sensitivity of each protein to identify the potential impact of genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations and the coupling of other pathways from the perspective of energy, respectively. By comparing the results in AML, MDS and normal cells, we investigated the potential critical genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that activate or repress specific cellular functions to promote MDS or AML leukemogenesis. We suggested that epigenetic modification of ?-catenin and signal integration of CSLs, AP-2?, STATs, c-Jun and ?-catenin could contribute to cell proliferation at AML and MDS. Epigenetic regulation of ERK and genetic mutation of p53 could lead to the repressed apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair in leukemic cells. Genetic mutation of JAK, epigenetic regulation of ERK, and signal integration of C/EBP? could result in the promotion of MDS cell differentiation. According to the results, we proposed three drugs, decitabine, genistein, and monorden for preventing AML leukemogenesis, while three drugs, decitabine, thalidomide, and geldanamycin, for preventing MDS leukemogenesis.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from a transformation of colonic epithelial cells into adenocarcinoma cells due to genetic and epigenetic instabilities, alongside remodelling of the surrounding stromal tumour microenvironment. Epithelial-specific epigenetic variations escorting this process include chromatin remodelling, histone modifications and aberrant DNA methylation, which influence gene expression, alternative splicing and function of non-coding RNA. In this review, we first highlight epigenetic modulators, modifiers and mediators in CRC, then we elaborate on causes and consequences of epigenetic alterations in CRC pathogenesis alongside an appraisal of the complex feedback mechanisms realized through alternative splicing and non-coding RNA regulation. An emphasis in our review is put on how this intricate network of epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene regulation evolves during the initiation, progression and metastasis formation in CRC.
Project description:Alternative splicing plays important regulatory roles during periods of physiological change. During development, a large number of genes coordinately express protein isoform transitions regulated by alternative splicing; however, the mechanisms that coordinate splicing and the functional integration of the resultant tissue-specific protein isoforms are typically unknown. Here we show that the conserved Rbfox2 RNA binding protein regulates 30% of the splicing transitions observed during myogenesis and is required for the specific step of myoblast fusion. Integration of Rbfox2-dependent splicing outcomes from RNA-seq with Rbfox2 iCLIP data identified Mef2d and Rock2 as Rbfox2 splicing targets. Restored activities of Mef2d and Rock2 rescued myoblast fusion in Rbfox2-depleted cultures, demonstrating functional cooperation of protein isoforms generated by coordinated alterative splicing. The results demonstrate that coordinated alternative splicing by a single RNA binding protein modulates transcription (Mef2d) and cell signaling (Rock2) programs to drive tissue-specific functions (cell fusion) to promote a developmental transition.
Project description:With the advent of whole-transcriptome sequencing, or RNA-seq, we now know that alternative splicing is a generalized phenomenon, with nearly all multiexonic genes subject to alternative splicing. In this review, we highlight recent studies examining alternative splicing as a modulator of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and as an underlying mechanism of dyslipidemia.A number of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism are known to undergo functionally relevant alternative splicing. Recently, we have identified coordinated changes in alternative splicing in multiple genes in response to alterations in cellular sterol content. We and others have implicated several splicing factors as regulators of lipid metabolism. Furthermore, a number of cis-acting human gene variants that modulate alternative splicing have been implicated in a variety of human metabolic diseases.Alternative splicing is of importance in various types of genetically influenced dyslipidemias and in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism.
Project description:As a co-transcriptional process, RNA processing, including alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation, is crucial for the generation of multiple mRNA isoforms. RNA processing mechanisms are widespread across all higher eukaryotes and play critical roles in cell differentiation, organ development and disease response. Recently, significant progresses have been made in understanding the mechanism of RNA processing. RNA processing is regulated by trans-acting factors such as splicing factors, RNA-binding proteins and cis-sequences in pre-mRNA, and increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, which are important for the dynamic regulation and state of specific chromatic regions, are also involved in co-transcriptional RNA processing. In contrast, recent studies also suggest that alternative RNA processing also has a feedback regulation on epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we discuss recent studies and summarize the current knowledge on the epigenetic regulation of alternative RNA processing. In addition, a feedback regulation of RNA processing on epigenetic regulators is also discussed.
Project description:Increasing evidence supports a role for altered gene expression in mediating the lasting effects of cocaine on the brain, and recent work has demonstrated the involvement of chromatin modifications in these alterations. However, all such studies to date have been restricted by their reliance on microarray technologies that have intrinsic limitations.We use next generation sequencing methods, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq for RNA polymerase II and several histone methylation marks, to obtain a more complete view of cocaine-induced changes in gene expression and associated adaptations in numerous modes of chromatin regulation in the mouse nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region. We demonstrate an unexpectedly large number of pre-mRNA splicing alterations in response to repeated cocaine treatment. In addition, we identify combinations of chromatin changes, or signatures, that correlate with cocaine-dependent regulation of gene expression, including those involving pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Through bioinformatic prediction and biological validation, we identify one particular splicing factor, A2BP1(Rbfox1/Fox-1), which is enriched at genes that display certain chromatin signatures and contributes to drug-induced behavioral abnormalities. Together, this delineation of the cocaine-induced epigenome in the nucleus accumbens reveals several novel modes of regulation by which cocaine alters the brain.We establish combinatorial chromatin and transcriptional profiles in mouse nucleus accumbens after repeated cocaine treatment. These results serve as an important resource for the field and provide a template for the analysis of other systems to reveal new transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of neuronal regulation.
Project description:Recurrent mutations in the splicing factor SRSF2 are associated with poor clinical outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Their high frequency suggests these mutations drive oncogenesis, yet the molecular explanation for this process is unclear. SRSF2 mutations could directly affect pre-mRNA splicing of a vital gene product; alternatively, a whole network of gene products could be affected. Here we determine how SRSF2 mutations globally affect RNA binding and splicing in vivo using HITS-CLIP. Remarkably, the majority of differential binding events do not translate into alternative splicing of exons with SRSF2P95H binding sites. Alternative splice alterations appear to be dominated by indirect effects. Importantly, SRSF2P95H targets are enriched in RNA processing and splicing genes, including several members of the hnRNP and SR families of proteins, suggesting a "splicing-cascade" phenotype wherein mutation of a single splicing factor leads to widespread modifications in multiple RNA processing and splicing proteins. We show that splice alteration of HNRNPA2B1, a splicing factor differentially bound and spliced by SRSF2P95H, impairs hematopoietic differentiation in vivo. Our data suggests a model whereby the recurrent mutations in splicing factors set off a cascade of gene regulatory events that together affect hematopoiesis and drive cancer.
Project description:In the last years, the explosion of high throughput sequencing technologies has enabled epigenome-wide analyses, allowing a more comprehensive overview of the oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) epigenetic landscape. In this setting, the cellular pathways contributing to the neoplastic phenotype, including cell cycle regulation, cell signaling, DNA repair, and apoptosis have been demonstrated to be potential targets of epigenetic alterations in OPSCC. Of note, it has becoming increasingly clear that HPV infection and OPSCC lifestyle risk factors differently drive the epigenetic machinery in cancer cells. Epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA expression, can be used as powerful and reliable tools for early diagnosis of OPSCC patients and improve prognostication. Since epigenetic changes are dynamic and reversible, epigenetic enzymes may also represent suitable targets for the development of more effective OPSCC therapeutic strategies. Thus, this review will focus on the main known epigenetic modifications that can occur in OPSCC and their exploitation as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Furthermore, we will address epigenetic alterations to OPSCC risk factors, with a particular focus on HPV infection, tobacco exposure, and heavy alcohol consumption.
Project description:Alternative splicing alterations can contribute to human disease. The ability of an RNA-binding protein to regulate alternative splicing outcomes can be modulated by a variety of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. In this study, we use a computational framework to investigate the roles of certain genes, termed modulators, on changing RBPs' effect on splicing regulation. A total of 1,040,254 modulator-mediated RBP-splicing interactions were identified, including 137 RBPs, 4,309 splicing events and 2,905 modulator candidates from TCGA-KIRC RNA sequencing data. Modulators function categories were defined according to the correlation changes between RBPs expression and their targets splicing outcomes. QKI, as one of the RBPs influencing the most splicing events, attracted our attention in this study: 2,014 changing triplets were identified, including 1,101 modulators and 187 splicing events. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that QKI splicing targets were enriched in tight junction pathway, endocytosis and MAPK signaling pathways, all of which are highly associated with cancer development and progression. This is the first instance of a comprehensive study on how alternative splicing outcomes changes are associated with different expression level of certain proteins, even though they were regulated by the same RBP. Our work may provide a novel view on understanding alternative splicing mechanisms in kidney cancer.