Project description:Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.
Project description:Presented here are data from Next-Generation Sequencing of differential micrococcal nuclease digestions of formaldehyde-crosslinked chromatin in selected tissues of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Supplemental materials include a wet-bench protocol for making DNS-seq libraries, the DNS-seq data processing pipeline for producing genome browser tracks. This report also includes the peak-calling pipeline using the iSeg algorithm to segment positive and negative peaks from the DNS-seq difference profiles. The data repository for the sequence data is the NCBI SRA, BioProject Accession PRJNA445708.
Project description:Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple crop worldwide with extensive genetic variations. Various insects attack maize plants causing large yield loss. Here, we investigated the responses of maize B73, a susceptible line, and Mo17, a resistant line, to the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi on metabolite and transcriptome levels. R. padi feeding had no effect on the levels of the defensive metabolites benzoxazinoids (Bxs) in either line, and Mo17 contained substantially greater levels of Bxs than did B73. Profiling of the differentially expressed genes revealed that B73 and Mo17 responded to R. padi infestation specifically, and importantly, these two lines showed large gene expression differences even without R. padi herbivory. Correlation analysis identified four transcription factors (TFs) that might account for the high Bx levels in Mo17. Similarly, genome-wide alternative splicing (AS) analyses indicated that both B73 and Mo17 had temporally specific responses to R. padi infestation, and these two lines also exhibited large differences of AS regulation under normal condition, and 340 genes, including 10 TFs, were constantly differentially spliced. This study provides large-scale resource datasets for further studies on the mechanisms underlying maize-aphid interactions, and highlights the phenotypic divergence in defense against aphids among maize varieties.
Project description:Maize was domesticated from lowland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), but the contribution of highland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana, hereafter mexicana) to modern maize is not clear. Here, two genomes for Mo17 (a modern maize inbred) and mexicana are assembled using a meta-assembly strategy after sequencing of 10 lines derived from a maize-teosinte cross. Comparative analyses reveal a high level of diversity between Mo17, B73, and mexicana, including three Mb-size structural rearrangements. The maize spontaneous mutation rate is estimated to be 2.17 × 10-8 ~3.87 × 10-8 per site per generation with a nonrandom distribution across the genome. A higher deleterious mutation rate is observed in the pericentromeric regions, and might be caused by differences in recombination frequency. Over 10% of the maize genome shows evidence of introgression from the mexicana genome, suggesting that mexicana contributed to maize adaptation and improvement. Our data offer a rich resource for constructing the pan-genome of Zea mays and genetic improvement of modern maize varieties.
Project description:Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, heat, and cold, negatively affect maize (Zea mays L.) development and productivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to abiotic stresses in maize, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of B73 seedling leaves exposed to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stress. A total of 5,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in differential comparisons between the control and each stressed sample, with 1,661, 2,019, 2,346, and 1,841 DEGs being identified in comparisons of the control with salinity, drought, heat, and cold stress, respectively. Functional annotations of DEGs suggested that the stress response was mediated by pathways involving hormone metabolism and signaling, transcription factors (TFs), very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid signaling, among others. Of the obtained DEGs (5,330), 167 genes are common to these four abiotic stresses, including 10 up-regulated TFs (five ERFs, two NACs, one ARF, one MYB, and one HD-ZIP) and two down-regulated TFs (one b-ZIP and one MYB-related), which suggested that common mechanisms may be initiated in response to different abiotic stresses in maize. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of maize leaf responses to abiotic stresses and could be useful for developing maize cultivars resistant to abiotic stresses.