Project description:Fatty acid synthesis was measured in vivo with 3H2O in interscapular brown adipose tissue of lean and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. At 26 days of age, before the development of hyperphagia, synthesis in brown adipose tissue was higher in the obese than in the lean mice; synthesis was also elevated in the liver, white adipose tissue and carcass of the obese mice. At 8 weeks of age, when hyperphagia was well established, synthesis remained elevated in all tissues of the obese mice, with the exception of brown adipose tissue. Elevated synthesis rates were not apparent in brown adipose tissue of the obese mice at 14 days of age, nor at 35 days of age. These results demonstrate that brown adipose tissue in ob/ob mice has a transitory hyperlipogenesis at, and just after, weaning on to a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Once hyperphagia has developed, by week 5 of life, brown adipose tissue is the only major lipogenic tissue in the obese mice not to exhibit elevated rates of fatty acid synthesis; this suggests that insulin resistance develops much more rapidly in brown adipose tissue than in other lipogenic tissues of the ob/ob mouse.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of acute resistance exercise on adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase activity (TGLA) in lean and obese men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Nine lean and eight obese men performed 30 min of circuit resistance exercise. Adipose tissue and blood were sampled during exercise for TGLA, metabolite, and hormone determinations. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was measured throughout exercise. RESULTS: Energy expenditure of exercise relative to body mass was higher in the lean and RER was higher in the obese men, suggesting lower fat oxidation. TGLA increased 18-fold at 5 min of exercise in the lean men and 16-fold at 10 min of exercise in the obese men. The delayed lipolytic activation in the obese men was reflected in serum nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol concentrations. Plasma insulin increased in the obese but did not change in the lean men. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance exercise upregulated adipose tissue lipolysis and enhanced energy expenditure in lean and obese men, with a delayed lipolytic activation in the obese men.
Project description:Interactions between macrophages and adipocytes influence both metabolism and inflammation. Obesity-induced changes to macrophages and adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. This paper reviews the various functions of macrophages in lean and obese adipose tissue and how obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes. Metabolic disease and insulin resistance shift the balance between numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators of macrophages and create a feed-forward loop of increasing inflammatory macrophage activation and worsening adipocyte dysfunction. This ultimately leads to adipose tissue fibrosis and diabetes. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes have therapeutic implications for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Obesity associates with low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue remodeling. Using sensitive high-throughput protein arrays we here investigated adipose tissue cytokine and angiogenesis-related protein profiles from obese and lean mice, and in particular, the influence of calorie restriction (CR).<h4>Methods</h4>Tissue samples from visceral fat were harvested from obese mice fed with a high-fat diet (60% of energy), lean controls receiving low-fat control diet as well as from obese and lean mice kept under CR (energy intake 70% of ad libitum intake) for 50?days. Protein profiles were analyzed using mouse cytokine and angiogenesis protein array kits.<h4>Results</h4>In obese and lean mice, CR was associated with 11.3% and 15.6% reductions in body weight, as well as with 4.0% and 4.6% reductions in body fat percentage, respectively. Obesity induced adipose tissue cytokine expressions, the most highly upregulated cytokines being IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-16, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, C5a, sICAM-1 and TIMP-1. CR increased sICAM-1 and TIMP-1 expression both in obese and lean mice. Overall, CR showed distinct effects on cytokine expressions; in obese mice CR largely decreased but in lean mice increased adipose tissue cytokine expressions. Obesity was also associated with increased expressions of angiogenesis-related proteins, in particular, angiogenin, endoglin, endostatin, endothelin-1, IGFBP-3, leptin, MMP-3, PAI-1, TIMP-4, CXCL16, platelet factor 4, DPPIV and coagulation factor III. CR increased endoglin, endostatin and platelet factor 4 expressions, and decreased IGFBP-3, NOV, MMP-9, CXCL16 and osteopontin expressions both in obese and lean mice. Interestingly, in obese mice, CR decreased leptin and TIMP-4 expressions, whereas in lean mice their expressions were increased. CR decreased MMP-3 and PAI-1 only in obese mice, whereas CR decreased FGF acidic, FGF basic and coagulation factor III, and increased angiogenin and DPPIV expression only in lean mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CR exerts distinct effects on adipocyte cytokine and angiogenesis profiles in obese and lean mice. Our study also underscores the importance of angiogenesis-related proteins and cytokines in adipose tissue remodeling and development of obesity.
Project description:Previous experiments have shown that insulin-induced glucose utilization is increased in white adipose tissue of young obese Zucker rats. We have investigated the possible role of over-expression of the muscle/fat glucose transporter (Glut 4) and key lipogenic enzymes in this increased insulin-responsiveness. The amount or activity and the mRNA concentrations of Glut 4, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were measured before and after weaning in white adipose tissue of obese and lean Zucker rats. Comparison of the levels of Glut 4 and lipogenic-enzyme expression in 15-day-old suckling and 30-day-old weaned rats on a high-carbohydrate diet shows a marked increase in the latter group. The increase was, in lean and obese rats respectively, 6- and 7-fold for the amount of Glut 4 and 2- and 3-fold for its mRNA concentrations, 40- and 100-fold for the activity of lipogenic enzymes (FAS and ACC) and 30- and 10-fold for their mRNA concentrations. Furthermore, all these parameters, except the amount of Glut 4, were 2-5-fold higher in obese rats, both before and after weaning. Changes at weaning were largely blunted when rats were weaned on to a high-fat diet, although the differences between lean and obese rats persisted, and even became significant for the amount of Glut 4. Whatever the experimental conditions, plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in obese than in lean rats. These results indicate the existence of an enhanced expression of Glut 4, FAS and ACC in white adipose tissue of young obese fa/fa rats which could be related to the increased plasma insulin levels.
Project description:Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m(2); n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2); n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to generate heat and dissipate energy in response to cold exposure in mammals. It has recently been acknowledged that adult humans also have functional BAT, whose metabolic activity is reduced in obesity. In healthy humans, the cerebral mechanisms that putatively control BAT function are unclear. By using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed that cold-induced BAT activation is associated with glucose metabolism in the cerebellum, thalamus, and cingulate, temporoparietal, lateral frontal, and occipital cortices in lean participants, whereas no such associations were found under warm control conditions. The cold-induced increase in cerebral glucose metabolism was more robust in lean than obese participants. Cerebral glucose metabolism was not associated with skeletal muscle or white adipose tissue glucose uptake under warm or cold conditions. In conclusion, BAT metabolism was accompanied by the activation of specific cerebral regions, and this shows an uncharacterized role that the brain plays in the regulation of BAT function. In obese participants, the cold-induced response in cerebral activity was attenuated that provides a clue for obesity-induced impairment in BAT metabolism.
Project description:The rates of lipid formation were compared in different fat-depots from lean and obese rats by using [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate, [14C]glucose or [14C]acetate as substrates. In lean animals, subcutaneous adipose tissue showed significantly lower rates of lipid synthesis than did perirenal and gonadal fat-tissue. In obese animals, the rates of lipid synthesis were significantly higher and did not vary from one fat-depot to another. Differences in the rates of lipid formation between lean and obese rats disappeared during dietary restriction of obese animals. The isolated adipocyte preparation did not reflect the true metabolic activity of the adipose organ, since this preparation was mainly derived from smaller adipocytes that were metabolically less active than larger adipocytes. The present study suggests that it is better to use whole tissue preparations to measure lipogenesis and esterification reactions, because these measurements represent the contribution of both larger and smaller adipocytes towards lipid formation.
Project description:Obtaining adipose tissue samples are paramount to the understanding of human obesity. We have examined the impact of needle-aspirated and surgical biopsy techniques on the study of subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) gene expression in both obese and lean subjects. Biopsy sampling methods have a significant impact on data interpretation and revealed that gene expression profiles derived from surgical tissue biopsies better capture the significant changes in molecular pathways associated with obesity. We hypothesize that this is because needle biopsies do not aspirate the fibrotic fraction of scAT; which subsequently results in an under-representation of the inflammatory and metabolic changes that coincide with obesity. This analysis revealed that the biopsy technique influences the gene expression underlying the biological themes commonly discussed in obesity (e.g. inflammation, extracellular matrix, metabolism, etc), and is therefore a caveat to consider when designing microarray experiments. These results have crucial implications for the clinical and physiopathological understanding of human obesity and therapeutic approaches. Keywords: subject and tissue biopsy technique comparison Tissue samples from lean and obese subjects were analyzed: total of 36 hybridizations. The goal was to compare the effect of biopsy sampling methods on global subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression analyses. The following subject groups were used for the analysis: 9 lean subjects: needle biopsy 9 lean subjects: surgical biopsy 9 obese subjects: needle biopsy 9 obese subjects: surgical biopsy
Project description:Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) adapt their metabolic phenotype either to maintain lean tissue homeostasis or drive inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the factors in the adipose tissue microenvironment that control ATM phenotypic polarization and bioenergetics remain unknown. We have recently shown that oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) uniquely regulate gene expression and cellular metabolism in <i>Mox</i> macrophages, but the presence of the <i>Mox</i> phenotype in adipose tissue has not been reported. Here we show, using extracellular flux analysis, that ATMs isolated from lean mice are metabolically inhibited. We identify a unique population of CX3CR1<sup>neg</sup>/F4/80<sup>low</sup> ATMs that resemble the <i>Mox</i> (Txnrd1<sup>+</sup>HO1<sup>+</sup>) phenotype to be the predominant ATM phenotype in lean adipose tissue. In contrast, ATMs isolated from obese mice had characteristics typical of the <i>M1</i>/<i>M2</i> (CD11c<sup>+</sup>CD206<sup>+</sup>) phenotype with highly activated bioenergetics. Quantifying individual OxPL species in the stromal vascular fraction of murine adipose tissue, using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealed that high fat diet-induced adipose tissue expansion led to a disproportional increase in full-length over truncated OxPL species. In vitro studies showed that macrophages respond to truncated OxPL species by suppressing bioenergetics and up-regulating antioxidant programs, mimicking the <i>Mox</i> phenotype of ATMs isolated from lean mice. Conversely, full-length OxPL species induce proinflammatory gene expression and an activated bioenergetic profile that mimics ATMs isolated from obese mice. Together, these data identify a redox-regulatory Mox macrophage phenotype to be predominant in lean adipose tissue and demonstrate that individual OxPL species that accumulate in adipose tissue instruct ATMs to adapt their phenotype and bioenergetic profile to either maintain redox homeostasis or to promote inflammation.