Project description:Apple is one of the most popular fruit crops world-wide and its skin color is an important quality consideration essential for commercial value. However, the strategy on genetic breeding for red skin apple and the genetic basis of skin color differentiation is very limited and still largely unknown. Here, we reported a bud sport mutant of Fuji apple with red skin color and enhanced anthocyanins accumulation. Quantitative SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry) proteomics investigations revealed proteome changes in the apple red skin bud mutation and a total of 411 differentially expressed proteins were identified in apple skin. The mutant showed significantly increased expression levels of photosynthesis-related proteins, stress-related proteins as well as anthocyanins biosynthesis pathway. On the other hand, substanial downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAPK4) and mevalonate kinase (MVK) were detected. We also hypothesize that a post-transcriptional regulation of the skin color formation occurs in the mutant through the advanced SWATH-MS analysis. Overall, our work provide important information on the application of proteomic methods for analysing proteomes changes in Fuji apple and highlights a clade of regulatory proteins potentially contributed to the fruit skin color formation.
Project description:Background: Earlobe color is a typical external trait in chicken. There are some previous studies showing that the chicken white/red earlobe color is a polygenic and sex-linked trait in some breeds, but its molecular genetic and histological mechanisms still remain unclear. Methods: We herein utilized histological section, genome-wide association study (GWAS) and RNA-seq, further to investigate the potential histological and molecular genetic mechanisms of white/red earlobe formation in Qiangyuan Partridge chicken (QYP). Results: through histological section analysis, we found the dermal papillary layer of red earlobes had many more blood vessels than that of white earlobes. And we identified a total of 44 SNPs from Chromosome 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 13, 19, 20, 23 and Z, that was significantly associated with the chicken white/red earlobe color from GWAS, along with 73 significantly associated genes obtained (e.g., PIK3CB, B4GALT1 and TP63), supporting the fact that the white/red earlobe color was also polygenic and sex-linked in QYP. Importantly, PIK3CB and B4GALT1 are both involved in the biological process of angiogenesis, which may directly give rise to the chicken white earlobe formation through regulating blood vessel density in chicken earlobe. Additionally, through contrast of RNA-seq profiles between white earlobe skins and red earlobe skins, we further identified TP63 and CDH1 differentially expressed. Combined with the existing knowledge of TP63 in epithelial development and tumor angiogenesis, we propose that down-regulated TP63 in white earlobes may play roles in thickening the skin and decreasing the vessel numbers in dermal papillary layer, thereby contributing to the white earlobe formation via paling the redness of the skin in QYP, but the specific mechanism remains further clarified. Conclusion: our findings advance the existing understanding of the white earlobe formation, as well as provide new clues to understand the molecular mechanism of chicken white/red earlobe color formation. Overall design: 100 QYPs with white earlobe and 100 QYPs with red earlobe were separately genotyped for GWAS. Genotyping strategy was based on Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing. GWAS was based on Plink case-control model.
Project description:Boihai Red is new strains of inter-specific hybridizing the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians) with the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus). Orange color variant of adductor muscle have been developed through successive selective breeding in this strain. In the present study,proteomic were conducted on orange and white adductor muscle tissues.Notably, 74 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by lable free proteomics, including 36 up and 38 down regulated. In DEGs, apolipophorin, CYP450 and tyrosinase were expressed highly in orange adductor muscle tissues, which related to carotenoids or melanin. In DEPs, high expression of VPS and TIF in orange adductor muscle tissues indicated that proteins outside the carotenoid pathway might also affect carotenoid biosynthesis. In addition, RAB11A related to melanin was also expressed highly in orange adductor muscle tissues at protein level. It is probable that not only carotenoids, but also melanin act on orange color of adductor muscle. This study provides valuable genetic resources for understanding underlying mechanisms and pathways of adductor muscle color.
Project description:Chicken eggs (Gallus gallus domesticus) were incubated, after 24 h of incubation either non-injected (control, C), or injected with the solvent sesame oil (Oleum Sesame Raffinatum, solvent control, SC), and the substances Tributyltin (TBT, 10pg TBT-SN/g egg) or 17alpha-Methyltestosteron (MT, 30 pg/g egg). Animals were decapitated on breeding day 19, 2 days before anticipated hatching. Right and left gonads of female and male chicken were accurately separated from adhesing tissues, stored in RNA lysis buffer (Promega) at -80°C until until RNA isolation with the SV Total RNA Isolation System Kit according to manual 048 (Promega). Sequencing was performed on Illumina’s Genome Analyzer IIx, and subsequent base calling was carried out by Illumina’s GAPipeline. Our study represents the first detailed analysis of whole chicken gonad transcriptomes, with biologic replicates, generated by SuperSAGE technology. Overall design: SuperSAGE analysis of substance-induced whole-gemome expression in 19-days-bred chicken gonads
Project description:Purpose: Analyze gene expression of necrotic enteritis C. perfringens in intestinal chicken loops comparing with in vitro conditions Overall design: Comparison of differential gene expression using RNA seq of necrotic enteritis C. perfriegens CP1 type A of in vivo (chicken intestinal loops) and in vitro (lab cultures)
Project description:The first period post-hatch with all its stimuli could potentially be stressful for the chicks, and by that affect the welfare of the chicken as they mature. By measuring changes in the transcriptome, along with behavioural phenotypes and hormonal levels, the aim is to investigate short and long term effects on the chicken. One batch of chicken were hatched in a production environment, and underwent the same treatment all newly hatched production animals do (sorting, sexing and transportation). Eggs of the same age were simultaneously incubated and hatched in a control environment in a lab. From the end of day one after hatch, both groups were reared under the same conditions in the lab.
Project description:In this study, a cross species hybridization (CSH) approach was used to evaluate whole transcriptome changes during carotenoid accumulation in the storage root of carrot (Daucus carota). Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds providing red, yellow and orange color to plants. Previous gene expression analyses of carotenoid accumulation in non-model plant species have primarily used a candidate gene approach. Since global transcriptome analyses require extensive genome sequence, in the absence of these genomic resources an alternate approach uses platforms developed for model plant species. To assess transcriptome patterns associated with carotenoid pigmentation in carrot storage root, two carrot sibling inbred lines, B8788, true breeding for orange color and B8750, true breeding for white root color, were hybridized to the Medicago Affymetrix GeneChip microarray. Near isogenic recombinant inbred lines B8788 and B8750, derived from a cross between white rooted wild carrot (QAL) and orange-rooted B493 were used for comparative analyzes to minimize background genetic differences. B8788 is true breeding for orange color whereas B8750 is true breeding for white storage root color. Carrots were grown in three pots for each genotype under greenhouse conditions and carrots were selected arbitrarily from these pots for harvest. Roots were harvested at approximately 11 weeks post planting when carotenoid accumulation becomes apparent in the storage root. Storage root tissue from sixteen individual carrot roots was pooled into three one-gram tissue pools of four carrots for each genotype.
Project description:A consortium of ten labs from the DC and Baltimore area was formed to compare three leading platforms. Each lab was given identical RNA samples (A1 and B1) which were processed according to what each lab considered best practice. Five of the labs used Affymetrix GeneChips, three used two-color spotted cDNA arrays, and two used two-color long oligo arrays. Keywords: repeat sample
Project description:Purpose: Analyze gene expression during C. perfringens colonization in the chicken Transcriptomic profile of mRNA from C. perfrinegns from in vivo and in vitro conditions were determined in biological duplicates by RNA-Seq using Illumina HiSeq 2500 Comparison of gene expression through RNA sequencing of necrotic enteritis C. perfrinegns type A of in vivo (chicken loops) and in vitro (lab culture)