Project description:The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Redoxclines that form between oxic and anoxic layers in the deepest sub-basins are a semi-permanent character of the pelagic Baltic Sea. The microbially mediated nitrogen removal processes in these redoxclines have been recognized as important ecosystem service that removes large proportion of the nitrogen load originating from the drainage basin. However, nitrification, which links mineralization of organic nitrogen and nitrogen removal processes, has remained poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the nitrogen cycling in the Baltic Sea, we analyzed the assemblage of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea in the central Baltic Sea using functional gene microarrays and measured the biogeochemical properties along with potential nitrification rates. Overall, the ammonia oxidizer communities in the Baltic Sea redoxcline were very evenly distributed. However, the communities were clearly different between the eastern and western Gotland Basin and the correlations between different components of the ammonia oxidizer assemblages and environmental variables suggest ecological basis for the community composition. The more even community ammonia oxidizer composition in the eastern Gotland Basin may be related to the constantly oscillating redoxcline that does not allow domination of single archetype. The oscillating redoxcline also creates long depth range of optimal nitrification conditions. The rate measurements suggest that nitrification in the central Baltic Sea is able to produce all nitrate required by denitrification occurring below the nitrification zone. Two color array (Cy3 and Cy5): the universal standard 20-mer oligo is printed to the slide with a 70-mer oligo (an archetype). Environmental DNA sequences (fluoresced with Cy3) within 15% of the 70-mer conjugated to a 20-mer oligo (fluoresced with Cy5) complementary to the universal standard will bind to the oligo probes on the array. Signal is the ratio of Cy3 to Cy5. Three replicate probes were printed for each archetype. Two replicate arrays were run on duplicate targets.
Project description:The interaction of animals with microbes relies on the specific recognition of microbial-derived molecules by receptors of the immune system. Sponges (phylum Porifera), as sister group of the Eumetazoa, provide insights into conserved mechanisms for animal-microbe crosstalk, but empirical data is limited. Here we aimed to characterize the immune response of sponges upon microbial stimuli by RNA-Seq. Two sponges species from the Mediterranean Sea, Aplysina aerophoba and Dysidea avara, were challenged with microbial-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan) or sterile artificial seawater (control) in aquarium experiments. Sponge tissue samples were collected 1h, 3h, and 5h after treatment. The response of the sponges to the treatments was assessed by differential gene expression analysis of RNA-Seq data. For each species, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the samples in MAMP treatment to control within each time point.
Project description:Bathymodiolus azoricus is a deep-sea mussel found in the hydrothermal vent fields of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It lives in symbiosis with sulfur- and methane-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria within its gills. In our study, we aimed to understand the metabolic and physiological interconnections between the symbiotic partners. For this purpose, symbionts and host were physically separated using density gradient centrifugation. This procedure yielded a symbiont-enriched gradient pellet fraction and a supernatant fraction enriched in host components. The cytosolic and membrane-associated proteome of both these fractions along with whole gill and foot tissue of the mussel were then investigated through 1D-PAGE LC-MS/MS. Proteins were quantified based on their spectral counts using the NSAF method. For efficient identification, sequences from evolutionarily related endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria and from bivalve host relatives were compiled into a comprehensive protein database. A total of 3178 host and symbiont proteins were identified from all samples.
Project description:<p>Sulfur (S) is a major heteroatom in organic matter. This project evaluated spatial variability in the concentration and molecular-level composition of organic sulfur along gradients of depth and latitude. We measured the concentration of total organic sulfur (TOS) directly from whole seawater. Our data reveal high variability in organic sulfur, relative to established variability in total organic carbon or nitrogen. The deep ocean contained significant amounts of organic sulfur, and the concentration of TOS in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) decreased with increasing age while total organic carbon remained stable. Analysis of dissolved organic matter extracts by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry revealed that 6% of elemental formulas contained sulfur. The sulfur-containing compounds were structurally diverse, and showed higher numbers of sulfur-containing elemental formulas as NADW moved southward. These measurements of organic sulfur in seawater provide the foundation needed to define the factors controlling organic sulfur in the global ocean.</p>
Project description:Despite the fact that deep sea mining is becoming more popular nowadays in terms of obtaining metals ores for daily life purposes, its potential impact to the deep sea habitat, which is originally stable and converse, stills remains uncertain. In order to estimate and regulate the imapct of deep sea mining activities, an in-situ exposure experiment is performed to observe the change in proteomics expression of the deep-sea scvangers, Abyssorchomene distinctus, to copper exposure. This project aims to suggest a potenial protein bio-marker in Abyssorchomene distinctus to assess the impact of mining activities towards deep sea organisms and also discuss the potential application of other deep sea in-situ exposure experiment in the future.