Project description:BACKGROUND: Resequencing can be used to identify genome variations underpinning many morphological and physiological phenotypes. Legume model plant Medicago truncatula ecotypes Jemalong A17 (J. A17) and R108 differ in their responses to mineral toxicity of aluminum and sodium, and mineral deficiency of iron in growth medium. The difference may result from their genome variations, but no experimental evidence supports this hypothesis. RESULTS: A total of 12,750 structure variations, 135,045 short insertions/deletions and 764,154 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by resequencing the genome of R108. The suppressed expression of MtAACT that encodes a putative aluminum-induced citrate efflux transporter by deletion of partial sequence of the second intron may account for the less aluminum-induced citrate exudation and greater accumulation of aluminum in roots of R108 than in roots of J. A17, thus rendering R108 more sensitive to aluminum toxicity. The higher expression-level of MtZpt2-1 encoding a TFIIIA-related transcription factor in J. A17 than R108 under conditions of salt stress can be explained by the greater number of stress-responsive elements in its promoter sequence, thus conferring J. A17 more tolerant to salt stress than R108 plants by activating the expression of downstream stress-responsive genes. YSLs (Yellow Stripe-Likes) are involved in long-distance transport of iron in plants. We found that an YSL gene was deleted in the genome of R108 plants, thus rendering R108 less tolerance to iron deficiency than J. A17 plants. CONCLUSIONS: The deletion or change in several genes may account for the different responses of M. truncatula ecotypes J. A17 and R108 to mineral toxicity of aluminum and sodium as well as iron deficiency. Uncovering genome variations by resequencing is an effective method to identify different traits between species/ecotypes that are genetically related. These findings demonstrate that analyses of genome variations by resequencing can shed important light on differences in responses of M. truncatula ecotypes to abiotic stress in general and mineral stress in particular.
Project description:Salt stress is an important abiotic stress that causes decreased crop yields. Root growth and plant activities are affected by salt stress through the actions of specific genes that help roots adapt to adverse environmental conditions. For a more comprehensive understanding of proteins affected by salinity, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to characterize the proteome-level changes associated with salt stress response in Medicago sativa cv. Zhongmu-1 and Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 roots. Our physiological and phenotypic observations indicated that Zhongmu-1 was more salt tolerant than Jemalong A17. We identified 93 and 30 proteins whose abundance was significantly affected by salt stress in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the differentially accumulated proteins resulted in the identification of 60 and 26 proteins in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. Function analyses indicated molecule binding and catalytic activity were the two primary functional categories. These proteins have known functions in various molecular processes, including defense against oxidative stress, metabolism, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and processing, and signal transduction. The transcript levels of four identified proteins were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that some of the identified proteins may play key roles in salt stress tolerance.
Project description:Legumes (Fabaceae, Leguminosae) are unique in their ability to carry out an elaborate endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation process with rhizobia proteobacteria. The symbiotic nitrogen fixation enables the host plants to grow almost independently of any other nitrogen source. Establishment of symbiosis requires adaptations of the host cellular metabolism, here foremost of the energy metabolism mainly taking place in mitochondria. Since the early 1990s, the galegoid legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. is a well-established model for studying legume biology, but little is known about the protein complement of mitochondria from this species. An initial characterization of the mitochondrial proteome of M. truncatula (Jemalong A17) was published recently. In the frame of this study, mitochondrial protein complexes were characterized using Two-dimensional (2D) Blue native (BN)/SDS-PAGE. From 139 detected spots, the "first hit" (=most abundant) proteins of 59 spots were identified by mass spectrometry. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial "complexome" (the "protein complex proteome") of M. truncatula via 2D BN/SDS-PAGE in combination with highly sensitive MS protein identification. In total, 1,485 proteins were identified within 158 gel spots, representing 467 unique proteins. Data evaluation by the novel GelMap annotation tool allowed recognition of protein complexes of low abundance. Overall, at least 36 mitochondrial protein complexes were found. To our knowledge several of these complexes were described for the first time in Medicago. The data set is accessible under http://www.gelmap.de/medicago/. The mitochondrial protein complex proteomes of Arabidopsis available at http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis/ and Medicago are compared.
Project description:we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to characterize the proteome-level changes associated with salt stress response in Medicago sativa cv. Zhongmu-1 and Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 roots. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the differentially accumulated proteins resulted in the identification of 60 and 26 proteins in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively.