Project description:Our aim in this report was to describe the characteristics of the first clinical isolate of Escherichia coli (EC-PAG-733) harboring the mcr-1 gene found in Mexico. This isolate was obtained from a fecal sample from a young child with an oncological condition. We obtained the whole-genome sequence using next-generation sequencing and analyzed the sequence by bioinformatics tools. EC-PAG-733 was resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and was susceptible to all carbapenems and amikacin; it was also resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin and colistin at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 ?g/mL. This isolate was classified as O11:H25-ST457. EC-PAG-733 harbored an ESBL type CTX-M-55 as well as several virulence factors that have been associated with Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC). The mcr-1 gene was located within an IncI2 plasmid. The results of this whole genome shotgun project were deposited in DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number QKXE00000000.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Classification of pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) has traditionally relied on detecting specific virulence associated genes (VAGs) or combinations thereof. For E. coli isolated from faecal samples, the presence of specific genes associated with different intestinal pathogenic pathovars will determine their classification and further course of action. However, the E. coli genome is not a static entity, and hybrid strains are emerging that cross the pathovar definitions. Hybrid strains may show gene contents previously associated with several distinct pathovars making the correct diagnostic classification difficult. We extended the analysis of routinely submitted faecal isolates to include known virulence associated genes that are usually not examined in faecal isolates to detect the frequency of possible hybrid strains. METHODS:From September 2012 to February 2013, 168 faecal isolates of E. coli routinely submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) from clinical microbiological laboratories throughout Norway were analysed for 33 VAGs using multiplex-PCR, including factors associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains. The strains were further typed by Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA), and the phylogenetic grouping was determined. One isolate from the study was selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS) with a combination of Oxford Nanopore's MinION and Illumina's MiSeq. RESULTS:The analysis showed a surprisingly high number of strains carrying ExPEC associated VAGs and strains carrying a combination of both intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC) and ExPEC VAGs. In particular, 93.5% (101/108) of isolates classified as belonging to an IPEC pathovar additionally carried ExPEC VAGs. WGS analysis of a selected hybrid strain revealed that it could, with present classification criteria, be classified as belonging to all of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) and Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) pathovars. CONCLUSION:Hybrid ExPEC/IPEC E. coli strains were found at a very high frequency in faecal samples and were in fact the predominant species present. A sequenced hybrid isolate was confirmed to be a cross-pathovar strain possessing recognised hallmarks of several pathovars, and a genome heavily influenced by horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:The annotation of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome in the EcoCyc database is one of the most accurate, complete and multidimensional genome annotations. Of the 4460 E. coli genes, EcoCyc assigns biochemical functions to 76%, and 66% of all genes had their functions determined experimentally. EcoCyc assigns E. coli genes to Gene Ontology and to MultiFun. Seventy-five percent of gene products contain reviews authored by the EcoCyc project that summarize the experimental literature about the gene product. EcoCyc information was derived from 15 000 publications. The database contains extensive descriptions of E. coli cellular networks, describing its metabolic, transport and transcriptional regulatory processes. A comparison to genome annotations for other model organisms shows that the E. coli genome contains the most experimentally determined gene functions in both relative and absolute terms: 2941 (66%) for E. coli, 2319 (37%) for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 1816 (5%) for Arabidopsis thaliana, 1456 (4%) for Mus musculus and 614 (4%) for Drosophila melanogaster. Database queries to EcoCyc survey the global properties of E. coli cellular networks and illuminate the extent of information gaps for E. coli, such as dead-end metabolites. EcoCyc provides a genome browser with novel properties, and a novel interactive display of transcriptional regulatory networks.
Project description:Escherichia coli KI683 was isolated from blood of a patient who developed septicemia as a complication of a urinary tract infection. Genome sequencing resulted in three contigs with a total genome size of 5,243,173?bp encoding 5,143 genes.
Project description:Transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) is a high-throughput method coupling transposon mutagenesis with short-fragment DNA sequencing. It is commonly used to identify essential genes. Single gene deletion libraries are considered the gold standard for identifying essential genes. Currently, the TraDIS method has not been benchmarked against such libraries, and therefore, it remains unclear whether the two methodologies are comparable. To address this, a high-density transposon library was constructed in Escherichia coli K-12. Essential genes predicted from sequencing of this library were compared to existing essential gene databases. To decrease false-positive identification of essential genes, statistical data analysis included corrections for both gene length and genome length. Through this analysis, new essential genes and genes previously incorrectly designated essential were identified. We show that manual analysis of TraDIS data reveals novel features that would not have been detected by statistical analysis alone. Examples include short essential regions within genes, orientation-dependent effects, and fine-resolution identification of genome and protein features. Recognition of these insertion profiles in transposon mutagenesis data sets will assist genome annotation of less well characterized genomes and provides new insights into bacterial physiology and biochemistry.IMPORTANCE Incentives to define lists of genes that are essential for bacterial survival include the identification of potential targets for antibacterial drug development, genes required for rapid growth for exploitation in biotechnology, and discovery of new biochemical pathways. To identify essential genes in Escherichia coli, we constructed a transposon mutant library of unprecedented density. Initial automated analysis of the resulting data revealed many discrepancies compared to the literature. We now report more extensive statistical analysis supported by both literature searches and detailed inspection of high-density TraDIS sequencing data for each putative essential gene for the E. coli model laboratory organism. This paper is important because it provides a better understanding of the essential genes of E. coli, reveals the limitations of relying on automated analysis alone, and provides a new standard for the analysis of TraDIS data.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE21820: Genome-wide characterization of PhoB binding profile in Escherichia coli (gene expression data) GSE21856: Genome-wide characterization of PhoB binding profile in Escherichia coli (ChIP-chip data) Refer to individual Series
Project description:Our goal is to construct an improved Escherichia coli to serve both as a better model organism and as a more useful technological tool for genome science. We developed techniques for precise genomic surgery and applied them to deleting the largest K-islands of E. coli, identified by comparative genomics as recent horizontal acquisitions to the genome. They are loaded with cryptic prophages, transposons, damaged genes, and genes of unknown function. Our method leaves no scars or markers behind and can be applied sequentially. Twelve K-islands were successfully deleted, resulting in an 8.1% reduced genome size, a 9.3% reduction of gene count, and elimination of 24 of the 44 transposable elements of E. coli. These are particularly detrimental because they can mutagenize the genome or transpose into clones being propagated for sequencing, as happened in 18 places of the draft human genome sequence. We found no change in the growth rate on minimal medium, confirming the nonessential nature of these islands. This demonstration of feasibility opens the way for constructing a maximally reduced strain, which will provide a clean background for functional genomics studies, a more efficient background for use in biotechnology applications, and a unique tool for studies of genome stability and evolution.
Project description:The udhA gene of Escherichia coli was cloned and expressed in E. coli and found to encode an enzyme with soluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase activity. The N-terminal end of the enzyme contains the fingerprint motif of a dinucleotide binding domain, not present in published E. coli genome sequences due to a sequencing error. E. coli is hereby the first organism reported to possess both a soluble and a membrane-bound pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase.