Project description:A psychro- and aerotolerant bacterium was isolated from the sulfidic water of a pelagic redox zone of the central Baltic Sea. The slightly curved rod- or spiral-shaped cells were motile by one polar flagellum or two bipolar flagella. Growth was chemolithoautotrophic, with nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor and either a variety of sulfur species of different oxidation states or hydrogen as electron donor. Although the bacterium was able to utilize organic substances such as acetate, pyruvate, peptone and yeast extract for growth, these compounds yielded considerably lower cell numbers than obtained with reduced sulfur or hydrogen; in addition, bicarbonate supplementation was necessary. The cells also had an absolute requirement for NaCl. Optimal growth occurred at 15 °C and at pH 6.6-8.0. The predominant fatty acid of this organism was 16?:?1?7c, with 3-OH 14?:?0, 16?:?0, 16?:?1?5c+t and 18?:?1?7c present in smaller amounts. The DNA G+C content was 33.6 mol%. As determined in 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny analysis, the isolate belongs to the genus Sulfurimonas, within the class Epsilonproteobacteria, with 93.7 to 94.2?% similarity to the other species of the genus Sulfurimonas, Sulfurimonas autotrophica, Sulfurimonas paralvinellae and Sulfurimonas denitrificans. However, the distinct physiological and genotypic differences from these previously described taxa support the description of a novel species, Sulfurimonas gotlandica sp. nov. The type strain is GD1(T) (?=?DSM 19862(T)?=?JCM 16533(T)). Our results also justify an emended description of the genus Sulfurimonas.