ABSTRACT: "Redeploying β-Lactam Antibiotics as a Novel Antivirulence Strategy for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections" and "Tandem Amplification of the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Element Can Drive High-Level Meth
Project description:The epidemic character of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), especially the geographically widespread clone USA300, is poorly understood. USA300 isolates carry a type IV staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element conferring -lactam antibiotic class resistance and a putative pathogenicity island, ACME (arginine catabolic mobile element). Physical linkage between SCCmec and ACME suggests that selection for antibiotic resistance and for pathogenicity may be interconnected. We constructed isogenic mutants containing deletions of SCCmec and ACME in a USA300 clinical isolate to determine the role of these elements in a rabbit model of bacteremia. We found that deletion of type IV SCCmec did not affect competitive fitness, whereas deletion of ACME significantly attenuated pathogenicity or fitness of USA300. These data are consistent with a model in which ACME enhances growth and survival of USA300, allowing for genetic "hitchhiking" of SCCmec. SCCmec in turn protects against exposure to β -lactams. Keywords: Wild type control vs mutant Overall design: Wild type untreated in triplicate is compared to three mutants in triplicate in both exponential and stationary growth phases, totalling 24 samples
Project description:The epidemic character of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), especially the geographically widespread clone USA300, is poorly understood. USA300 isolates carry a type IV staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element conferring -lactam antibiotic class resistance and a putative pathogenicity island, ACME (arginine catabolic mobile element). Physical linkage between SCCmec and ACME suggests that selection for antibiotic resistance and for pathogenicity may be interconnected. We constructed isogenic mutants containing deletions of SCCmec and ACME in a USA300 clinical isolate to determine the role of these elements in a rabbit model of bacteremia. We found that deletion of type IV SCCmec did not affect competitive fitness, whereas deletion of ACME significantly attenuated pathogenicity or fitness of USA300. These data are consistent with a model in which ACME enhances growth and survival of USA300, allowing for genetic "hitchhiking" of SCCmec. SCCmec in turn protects against exposure to β -lactams. Keywords: Wild type control vs mutant Wild type untreated in triplicate is compared to three mutants in triplicate in both exponential and stationary growth phases, totalling 24 samples
Project description:Comparing two subclones (Taiwan clone and Asian-Pacific clone) of CA-MRSA ST59. The Taiwan clone carries the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) VT and is frequently isolated from patients with severe disease. The Asian-Pacific clone is PVL-negative, carries SCCmec IV, and is a frequent colonizer of healthy children.
Project description:Several methicillin resistance (SCCmec) clusters characteristic of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbor the psm-mec locus. In addition to encoding the cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) mec, this locus has been attributed gene regulatory functions. Here we employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling to define the regulatory function of the psm-mec locus. The immune evasion factor protein A emerged as the primary conserved and strongly regulated target of psm-mec, an effect we show is mediated by the psm-mec RNA. Furthermore, the psm-mec locus exerted regulatory effects that were more moderate in extent and possibly mediated by the PSM-mec peptide. For example, expression of PSM-mec limited expression of mecA, thereby decreasing methicillin resistance. Our study shows that the psm-mec locus has a rare dual regulatory RNA and encoded cytolysin function, both with the potential to enhance MRSA virulence. Furthermore, our findings reveal a specific mechanism underscoring the recently emerging concept that S. aureus strains balance pronounced virulence and high expression of antibiotic resistance. Overall design: wild type vs. mutant
| GSE51366 | GEO
Project description:SCCmecFinder, a web-based tool for typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec
Project description:BACKGROUND: Infections with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are emerging worldwide. We investigated an outbreak of severe CA-MRSA infections in children following out-patient vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a field investigation after adverse events following immunization (AEFI) were reported. We reviewed the clinical data from all cases. S. aureus recovered from skin infections and from nasal and throat swabs were analyzed by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, multi locus sequence typing, PCR and microarray. In May 2006, nine children presented with AEFI, ranging from fatal toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing soft tissue infection, purulent abscesses, to fever with rash. All had received a vaccination injection in different health centres in one District of Ho Chi Minh City. Eight children had been vaccinated by the same health care worker (HCW). Deficiencies in vaccine quality, storage practices, or preparation and delivery were not found. Infection control practices were insufficient. CA-MRSA was cultured in four children and from nasal and throat swabs from the HCW. Strains from children and HCW were indistinguishable. All carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL), the staphylococcal enterotoxin B gene, the gene complex for staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome mec type V, and were sequence type 59. Strain HCM3A is epidemiologically unrelated to a strain of ST59 prevalent in the USA, although they belong to the same lineage. CONCLUSIONS: We describe an outbreak of infections with CA-MRSA in children, transmitted by an asymptomatic colonized HCW during immunization injection. Consistent adherence to injection practice guidelines is needed to prevent CA-MRSA transmission in both in- and outpatient settings. Data is also available from http://bugs.sgul.ac.uk/E-BUGS-45
Project description:Bacterial sepsis is a major killer in hospitalized patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) with the leading species Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequent causes of nosocomial sepsis, with most infectious isolates being methicillin resistant. However, which bacterial factors underlie the pathogenesis of CNS sepsis is unknown. While it has been commonly believed that invariant structures on the surface of CNS trigger sepsis by causing an over-reaction of the immune system, we show here that sepsis caused my methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis is to a large extent mediated by the methicillin resistance island-encoded peptide toxin, PSM-mec. PSM-mec contributed to bacterial survival in whole human blood and resistance to neutrophil-mediated killing, and caused significantly increased mortality and cytokine expression in a mouse sepsis model. Furthermore, we show that the PSM-mec peptide itself, rather than the regulatory RNA in which its gene is embedded, is responsible for the observed virulence phenotype. While toxins have never been clearly indicated in CNS infections, our study shows that an important type of infection caused by the predominant CNS species, S. epidermidis, is mediated to a large extent by a toxin. Of note, these findings suggest that CNS infections may be amenable to virulence-targeted drug development approaches. We used microarrays to detail the global gene expression between S. epidermidis strain Rp62A and S. epidermidis strain Rp62A isogenic Δpsm-mec deletion mutants Overall design: We used microarrays to detail the global gene expression between five strains of Se.
Project description:Subinhibitory concentrations of the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ) are well-known to enhance the killing of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) by β-lactam antibiotics, however, the mechanism underlying the synergy between TDZ and β-lactams is not fully understood. In the present study we have examined the effect of a subinhibitory concentration of TDZ on antimicrobial resistance, the global transcriptome, and the cell wall composition of MRSA USA300. We show that TDZ is able to sensitize the bacteria to several classes of antimicrobials targeting the late stages of peptidoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, our microarray analysis demonstrates that TDZ modulates the expression of genes encoding membrane and surface proteins, transporters, and enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. Interestingly, resemblance between the transcriptional profile of TDZ treatment and the transcriptomic response of S. aureus to known inhibitors of cell wall synthesis suggests that TDZ disturbs peptidoglycan biosynthesis at a stage that precedes transpeptidation. In support of this notion, dramatic changes in the muropeptide profile of USA300 were observed following growth in the presence of TDZ, indicating that TDZ can interfere with the formation of the pentaglycine branches. Strikingly, the addition of glycine to the growth medium relieved the effect of TDZ on the muropeptide profile. Furthermore, exogenous glycine offered a modest protective effect against TDZ-induced β-lactam sensitivity. We propose that TDZ exposure leads to a shortage of intracellular amino acids, including glycine, which is required for the production of normal peptidoglycan precursors with pentaglycine branches, the correct substrate of S. aureus penicillin-binding proteins. Collectively, this work demonstrates that TDZ has a major impact on the cell wall biosynthesis pathway in S. aureus and provides new insights into how MRSA may be sensitized towards β-lactam antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus USA300 was grown to early exponential phase and treated with TDZ (16 µg/ml) alone or in combination with DCX (0.125 µg/ml) for 30 min. Changes in global gene expression were analyzed using the untreated culture as control. Hybridizations were performed in triplicate using RNA isolated from independent cultures.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria possess stress responses to maintain the integrity of the cell envelope. Stress sensors monitor outer membrane permeability, envelope protein folding, and energization of the inner membrane. The systems used by Gram-negative bacteria to sense and combat stress resulting from disruption of the peptidoglycan layer are not well characterized. The peptidoglycan layer is a single molecule that completely surrounds the cell and ensures its structural integrity. During cell growth new peptidoglcyan subunits are incorporated into the peptidoglycan layer by a series of enzymes called the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). To explore how Gram-negative bacteria respond to peptidoglycan stress, global gene expression analysis was used to identify Escherichia coli stress responses activated following inhibition of specific PBPs by the β-lactam antibiotics mecillinam and cefsulodin. Inhibition of PBPs with different roles in peptidoglycan synthesis has different consequences for cell morphology and viability, suggesting that not all perturbations to the peptidoglycan layer generate equivalent stresses. We demonstrate that inhibition of different PBPs resulted in both shared and unique stress responses. The regulation of capsular synthesis (Rcs) phosphorelay was activated by inhibition of all of the PBPs tested. Furthermore, we show that activation of the Rcs phosphorelay increased survival in the presence of these antibiotics, independently of capsule synthesis. Both activation of the phosphorelay and survival required signal transduction via the outer membrane lipoprotein RcsF and the response regulator RcsB. We propose that the Rcs pathway responds to peptidoglycan damage and contributes to the intrinsic resistance of E. coli to β-lactam antibiotics. We used microarrays to identify changes in gene expression resulting from treatment of Escherichia coli with the β-lactam antibiotics cefsulodin, mecillinam, or the combination. This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Overall design: Refer to individual Series