Project description:Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2? diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C. michiganensis subspecies to species status. On the basis of whole genome and MLSA data, we propose the establishment of two new species and three new combinations: Clavibacter capsici sp. nov., comb. nov. and Clavibacter tessellarius sp. nov., comb. nov., and Clavibacter insidiosus comb. nov., Clavibacter nebraskensis comb. nov. and Clavibacter sepedonicus comb. nov.
Project description:Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 10 Clavibacter sp. strains, including the type strains of different subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis and a potentially novel species within the genus. Genome lengths of the strains varied between 2,982,864 and 3,288,331 bp, with G+C contents of 72.23 to 73.50%.
Project description:Members of the genus Clavibacter are economically important bacterial plant pathogens infecting a set of diverse agricultural crops (e.g., alfalfa, corn, potato, tomato, and wheat). Tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains account for a great portion of the genetic diversity of the genus, and C. michiganensis sensu stricto (formerly C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), causing bacterial canker disease, is considered one of the most destructive seed-borne agents for the crop worldwide. However, current taxonomic descriptions of the genus do not reflect the existing diversity of the strains, resulting in unsatisfactory results in quarantine surveys for the pathogens. In this study, we used all the available genome sequences of Clavibacter sp. strains, including the type strains of newly described subspecies, to provide precise insight into the diversity of tomato-associated members of the genus and further clarify the taxonomic status of the strains using genotypic and phenotypic features. The results of phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of nine hypothetical new species among the investigated strains. None of the three new subspecies (i.e., C. michiganensis subsp. californiensis, C. michiganensis subsp. chilensis, and C. michiganensis subsp. phaseoli) is included within the tomato-pathogenic C. michiganensis sensu stricto lineage. Although comparative genomics revealed the lack of chp and tomA pathogenicity determinant gene clusters in the nonpathogenic strains, a number of pathogenicity-related genes were noted to be present in all the strains regardless of their pathogenicity characteristics. Altogether, our results indicate a need for a formal taxonomic reconsideration of tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains to facilitate differentiation of the lineages in quarantine inspections.IMPORTANCE Clavibacter spp. are economically important bacterial plant pathogens infecting a set of diverse agricultural crops, such as alfalfa, corn, pepper, potato, tomato, and wheat. A number of plant-pathogenic members of the genus (e.g., C. michiganensis sensu stricto and C. sepedonicus, infecting tomato and potato plants, respectively) are included in the A2 (high-risk) list of quarantine pathogens by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). Although tomato-associated members of Clavibacter spp. account for a significant portion of the genetic diversity in the genus, only the strains belonging to C. michiganensis sensu stricto (formerly C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) cause bacterial canker disease of tomato and are subjected to the quarantine inspections. Hence, discrimination between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic Clavibacter sp. strains associated with tomato seeds and transplants plays a pivotal role in the accurate detection and cost-efficient management of the disease. On the other hand, detailed information on the genetic contents of different lineages of the genus would lead to the development of genome-informed specific detection techniques. In this study, we have provided an overview of the phylogenetic and genomic differences between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains. We also noted that the taxonomic status of newly introduced subspecies of C. michiganensis (i.e., C. michiganensis subsp. californiensis, C. michiganensis subsp. chilensis, and C. michiganensis subsp. phaseoli) should be reconsidered.
Project description:Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.
Project description:We report here the complete genome sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus R1-1, isolated in Minnesota, USA. The R1-1 genome, generated by a de novo assembly of PacBio sequencing data, is the first complete genome sequence available for this subspecies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The genus Clavibacter harbors economically important plant pathogens infecting agricultural crops such as potato and tomato. Although the vast majority of Clavibacter strains are pathogenic, there is an increasing number of non-pathogenic isolates reported. Non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains isolated from tomato seeds are particularly problematic because they affect the current detection and identification tests for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), which is regulated with a zero tolerance in tomato seed. Their misidentification as pathogenic Cmm hampers a clear judgment on the seed quality and health. RESULTS: To get more insight in the genetic features linked to the lifestyle of these bacteria, a whole-genome sequence of the tomato seed-borne non-pathogenic Clavibacter LMG 26808 was determined. To gain a better understanding of the molecular determinants of pathogenicity, the genome sequence of LMG 26808 was compared with that of the pathogenic Cmm strain (NCPPB 382). The comparative analysis revealed that LMG 26808 does not contain plasmids pCM1 and pCM2 and also lacks the majority of important virulence factors described so far for pathogenic Cmm. This explains its apparent non-pathogenic nature in tomato plants. Moreover, the genome analysis of LMG 26808 detected sequences from a plasmid originating from a member of Enterobacteriaceae/Klebsiella relative. Genes received that way and coding for antibiotic resistance may provide a competitive advantage for survival of LMG 26808 in its ecological niche. Genetically, LMG 26808 was the most similar to the pathogenic Cmm NCPPB 382 but contained more mobile genetic elements. The genome of this non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain contained also a high number of transporters and regulatory genes. CONCLUSIONS: The genome sequence of the non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain LMG 26808 and the comparative analyses with other pathogenic Clavibacter strains provided a better understanding of the genetic bases of virulence and adaptation mechanisms present in the genus Clavibacter.
Project description:Bacteriophage CMP1 is a member of the Siphoviridae family that infects specifically the plant-pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The linear double- stranded DNA is terminally redundant and not circularly permuted. The complete nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage CMP1 genome consists of 58,652 bp including the terminal redundant ends of 791 bp. The G+C content of the phage (57%) is significantly lower than that of its host (72.66%). 74 potential open reading frames were identified and annotated by different bioinformatic tools. Two large clusters which encode the early and the late functions could be identified which are divergently transcribed. There are only a few hypothetical gene products with conserved domains and significant similarity to sequences from the databases. Functional analyses confirmed the activity of four gene products, an endonuclease, an exonuclease, a single-stranded DNA binding protein and a thymidylate synthase. Partial genomic sequences of CN77, a phage of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, revealed a similar genome structure and significant similarities on the level of deduced amino acid sequences. An endolysin with peptidase activity has been identified for both phages, which may be good tools for disease control of tomato plants against Clavibacter infections.
Project description:Tomato bacterial canker disease, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a destructive disease and has been a serious concern for tomato industries worldwide. Previously, a rhizosphere isolated strain of Pseudomonas sp. 23S showed antagonistic activity toward Cmm in vitro. This Pseudomonas sp. 23S was characterized to explore the potential of this bacterium for its use in agriculture. Pseudomonas sp. 23S possesses ability to solubilize inorganic phosphorus, and to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrogen cyanide. The strain also showed antagonistic activity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC 3000. A plant assay indicated that Pseudomonas sp. 23S could promote growth of tomato seedlings. The potential of treating tomato plants with Pseudomonas sp. 23S to reduce the severity of tomato bacterial canker by inducing systemic resistance (ISR) was investigated using well characterized marker genes such as PR1a [salicylic acid (SA)], PI2 [jasmonic acid (JA)], and ACO [ethylene (ET)]. Two-week-old tomato plants were treated with Pseudomonas sp. 23S by soil drench, and Cmm was inoculated into the stem by needle injection on 3, 5, or 7 days post drench. The results indicated that plants treated with Pseudomonas sp. 23S, 5 days prior to Cmm inoculation significantly delayed the progression of the disease. These plants, after 3 weeks from the date of Cmm inoculation, had significantly higher dry shoot and root weight, higher levels of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the leaf tissue, and the number of Cmm population in the stem was significantly lower for the plants treated with Pseudomonas sp. 23S. From the real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the treatment with Pseudomonas sp. 23S alone was found to trigger a significant increase in the level of PR1a transcripts in tomato plants. When the plants were treated with Pseudomonas sp. 23S and inoculated with Cmm, the level of PR1a and ACO transcripts were increased, and this response was faster and greater as compared to plants inoculated with Cmm but not treated with Pseudomonas sp. 23S. Overall, the results suggested the involvement of SA signaling pathways for ISR induced by Pseudomonas sp. 23S.