Project description:Aegilops caudata is an important gene source for wheat breeding. Intensive evaluation of its utilization value is an essential first step prior to its application in breeding. In this research, the agronomical and quality traits of Triticum aestivum-Ae. caudata additions B-G (homoeologous groups not identified) were analyzed and evaluated. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosome D of Ae. caudata might possess leaf rust resistance, and chromosome E might carry stem rust and powdery mildew resistance genes. Investigations into agronomical traits suggested that the introduction of the Ae. caudata chromosome in addition line F could reduce plant height. Grain quality tests showed that the introduction of chromosomes E or F into wheat could increase its protein and wet gluten content. Therefore, wheat-Ae. caudata additions D-F are all potentially useful candidates for chromosome engineering activities to create useful wheat-alien chromosome introgressions. A total of 55 EST-based molecular markers were developed and then used to identify the chromosome homoeologous group of each of the Ae. caudata B-G chromosomes. Marker analysis indicated that the Ae. caudata chromosomes in addition lines B to G were structurally altered, therefore, a large population combined with intensive screening pressure should be taken into consideration when inducing and screening for wheat-Ae. caudata compensating translocations. Marker data also indicated that the Ae. caudata chromosomes in addition lines C-F were 5C, 6C, 7C, and 3C, respectively, while the homoeologous group of chromosomes B and G of Ae. caudata are as yet undetermined and need further research.
Project description:The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.
Project description:Aegilops caudata L. [syn. Ae. markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer], is a diploid wild relative of wheat (2n = 2x = 14, CC) and a valuable source for new genetic diversity for wheat improvement. It has a variety of disease resistance factors along with tolerance for various abiotic stresses and can be used for wheat improvement through the generation of genome-wide introgressions resulting in different wheat-Ae. caudata recombinant lines. Here, we report the generation of nine such wheat-Ae. caudata recombinant lines which were characterized using wheat genome-specific KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) markers and multi-color genomic in situ hybridization (mcGISH). Of these, six lines have stable homozygous introgressions from Ae. caudata and will be used for future trait analysis. Using cytological techniques and molecular marker analysis of the recombinant lines, 182 KASP markers were physically mapped onto the seven Ae. caudata chromosomes, of which 155 were polymorphic specifically with only one wheat subgenome. Comparative analysis of the physical positions of these markers in the Ae. caudata and wheat genomes confirmed that the former had chromosomal rearrangements with respect to wheat, as previously reported. These wheat-Ae. caudata recombinant lines and KASP markers are useful resources that can be used in breeding programs worldwide for wheat improvement. Additionally, the genome-specific KASP markers could prove to be a valuable tool for the rapid detection and marker-assisted selection of other Aegilops species in a wheat background.
Project description:Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.