Project description:The Effects of Air Pollution on the Development of Obesity in Children (Meta-AIR) study was proposed to study a subset of the Children's Health Study (CHS) participants representing the extremes of long-term traffic-related air pollution exposure occurring in Southern California CHS communities. The primary aim of the Meta-AIR study was to investigate whether lifetime exposure to air pollution increases risk for obesity and metabolic dysfunction at 17-18 years of age. A total of 56 Hispanic White participants (16 asthma cases and 40 controls) were included in the TOPMed project.
Project description:The Integrative Genetic Approaches to Gene-Air Pollution Interactions in Asthma (GAP) study was proposed to use an innovative genetics approach in mice and humans to identify novel variants that interact with traffic-related pollutant exposures to affect lung function phenotypes and the risk of childhood asthma. The study participants were enrolled from the original southern California Children's Health Study (CHS). In the TOPMed project, seven Hispanic White participants who did not have asthma history were included in the WGS analysis.
Project description:Comparison of genome-wide gene expression between humans living in areas of high levels of air pollution and less polluted areas. Experiment Overall Design: The study investigated differential gene expression in peripheral blood from 23 children and 12 adults from a region of residence with high levels of air pollution as compared to 24 children and 12 adults from a less-polluted area.Two conditions: living in the polluted or in the less-polluted area. One individual per array, hybridized against a common reference sample
Project description:Air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) and chemicals adsorbed onto PM pose a serious threat to human health. In this study, we analyzed the ability of PM to induce diverse gene expression profile modulation after chronic exposure in subjects living in two regions of the Czech Republic differing in levels and sources of the air pollution. We also considered impact of different seasonal conditions on concentrations and compositions of PM. Blood samples of 312 subjects from polluted Ostrava city and 154 controls from Prague city were collected in winter 2009, summer 2009 and winter 2010. The highest concentrations of air pollutants were detected in winter 2010 when the subjects were exposed to: PM of aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (70 vs. 44.9 µg/m3); benzo[a]pyrene (9.02 vs. 2.56 ng/m3) and benzene (10.2 vs. 5.5 µg/m3) in Ostrava and Prague, respectively. Global gene expression analysis of total RNA extracted from leukocytes was performed using whole genome microarrays (Illumina). The expression of selected genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Despite lower concentrations of air pollutants we found a higher number of differentially expressed genes and affected KEGG pathways in subjects from Prague. In both locations we observed differences between seasons. The qRT-PCR analysis showed a significant decrease in expression of APEX, ATM, FAS, GSTM1, IL1B and RAD21 in subjects from Ostrava, in a comparison of winter 2010 and summer 2009. In Prague, an increase in gene expression was observed for GADD45A and PTGS2. In conclusion, high concentrations of pollutants in Ostrava do not increase the number of differentially expressed genes. This may be explained by adaption of humans to chronic exposure to air pollution. Total RNA was extracted from leukocytes of total of 154 control subjects and 312 subjects exposed to heavy air pollution. The samples were collected in three seasons (winter 2009, summer 2009, winter 2010) with different levels of air pollution. Most of the subjects were sampled repeatedly; however, some of them joined the study in summer 2009 or winter 2010.
Project description:Comparison of genome-wide gene expression between humans living in areas of high levels of air pollution and less polluted areas. Keywords: Comparison of genome-wide gene expression between different conditions Overall design: The study investigated differential gene expression in peripheral blood from 23 children and 12 adults from a region of residence with high levels of air pollution as compared to 24 children and 12 adults from a less-polluted area.Two conditions: living in the polluted or in the less-polluted area. One individual per array, hybridized against a common reference sample
Project description:The overall goal of this proposal is to use blood non-targeted high resolution metabolomics (HRM) to investigate the hypothesis that regional air pollution (NO2, PM2.5 and O3) and traffic-related air pollution exposures (traffic-related particulate matter components including EC2.5 and PM2.5 transition metals, and CALINE model-predicted NOx) alter key metabolic pathway(s) and that these alterations are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes-related traits during the important developmental period of adolesence in the ongoing prospective Chidlren's Health study (CHS). Specific Aim 1 will examine the adverse impact of environmental chemicals in fasting blood samples measured by HRM on obesity (i.e., total body fat and body mass index (BMI)), metabolic dysfunction (e.g., fasting glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance), and obesity-induced inflammation (i.e., leptin) among 104 Southern California adolescents enrolled in the CHS. Specific Aim 2 will examine associations of childhood exposures to PM2.5 and traffic-related air pollutants (i.e., CALINE model-predicted NOx) with biological metabolites identified in fasting blood samples using HRM among 104 adolescents in the CHS. Specific Aim 3 will investigate the metabolic pathways linking air pollution exposures and obesity and type 2 diabetes-related traits using pathway analysis under bayesian hierarchical model among 104 adolescents in the CHS.