Project description:Wheat is one of the best-domesticated cereal crops and one of the vital sources of nutrition for humans. An investigation was undertaken to reveal the potential of novel bio-inoculants enriching micronutrients in shoot and grains of wheat crop to eliminate the hazards of malnutrition. Sole as well as consortia inoculation of bio-inoculants significantly enhanced mineral nutrients including zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations in shoot and grains of wheat. Various treatments of bio-inoculants increase Zn and Fe content up to 1-15% and 3-13%, respectively. Sole inoculation of Bacillus aryabhattai (S10) impressively improves the nutritious of wheat. However, the maximum increase in minerals contents of wheat was recorded by consortia inoculation of Paenibacillus polymyxa ZM27, Bacillus subtilis ZM63 and Bacillus aryabhattai S10. This treatment also showed a maximum bacterial population (18 × 104 cfu mL-1) in the rhizosphere. The consortium application of these strains showed up to a 17% increase in yield. It is evident from the results that the consortium application was more effective than sole and co-inoculation. A healthy positive correlation was found between growth, yield, and the accessibility of micronutrients to wheat crops at the harvesting stage. The present investigations revealed the significance of novel bacterial strains in improving the nutritional status of wheat crops. These strains could be used as bio-inoculants for the biofortification of wheat to combat hidden hunger in developing countries.
Project description:Removal of long-chain hydrocarbons and n-alkanes from oil-contaminated environments are mere important to reduce the ecological damages, while bio-augmentation is a very promising technology that requires highly efficient microbes. In present study, the efficiency of pure isolates, i.e., Geobacillus thermoparaffinivorans IR2, Geobacillus stearothermophillus IR4 and Bacillus licheniformis MN6 and mixed consortium on degradation of long-chain n-alkanes C32 and C40 was investigated by batch cultivation test. Biodegradation efficiencies were found high for C32 by mixed consortium (90%) than pure strains, while the pure strains were better in degradation of C40 than mixed consortium (87%). In contrast, the maximum alkane hydroxylase activities (161 µmol mg-1 protein) were recorded in mixed consortium system that had supplied with C40 as sole carbon source. Also, the alcohol dehydrogenase (71 µmol mg-1 protein) and lipase activity (57 µmol mg-1 protein) were found high. Along with the enzyme activities, the hydrophobicity natures of the bacterial strains were found to determine the degradation efficiency of the hydrocarbons. Thus, the study suggested that the hydrophobicity of the bacteria is a critical parameter to understand the biodegradation of n-alkanes.
Project description:Compatible interaction between commonly used plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in biofilm mode in vitro and in the rhizosphere is expected to provide better understanding for the development of effective consortium. With the above hypothesis, the present study evaluated two characterized PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens FAP2 and Bacillus licheniformis B642) for their biofilm-related functions using standard protocols. The interaction between the FAP2 and B642 in planktonic mode was studied by plate spot/overlay method and competitive growth assessment. Biofilm development on a microtitre plate and a glass surface was studied by standard methods. Biofilm formation was characterized by SEM. Rhizosphere and rhizoplane colonization of wheat seedlings by both isolates individually and by co-inoculation was studied by determining CFU/g of soil/root samples. Biofilm development on the root surface was further analyzed by SEM. Both isolates demonstrated multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits (production of IAA, siderophore, and ammonia; phosphate solubilization) and biofilm-related functions such as production of EPS, alginate, cell surface hydrophobicity and swarming motility. Both strains formed strong biofilms on a glass cover slip in vitro. Interaction between the two strains under the planktonic mode revealed no antagonism in terms of growth inhibition and competitive growth kinetics. Similarly, FAP2 and B642 strains formed a mixed biofilm on a glass cover slip as well as on seedling roots. Wheat rhizosphere and rhizoplane were colonized by both isolates as evidenced from their viable counts in single and co-inoculation. The effect of single and co inoculation revealed the significant enhancement of vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters such as chlorophyll content, transpiration rate (E), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), and net photosynthetic rate (PN) and leaf water potential (LWP) as compared to uninoculated control. Indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens FAP2 strain and Bacillus licheniformis B642 are compatible PGPR in both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth and threfore could be developed effective consortium of PGPR. Further indepth investigation is required to understand molecular mechanism of the interaction in biofilm mode of growth under natural condition.
Project description:The use of bacterial strains as agents in bioremediation processes could reduce the harmfulness of potential toxic elements (PTEs) from water and soil with low or even no impact on the natural ecosystems. In this study, two new metal resistant-bacterial strains (Q3 and Q5) of Bacillus sp. were isolated from a sulfurous spring and their potential (as pure cultures or mixed) to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) from an aqueous matrix was evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions for Cd(II) removal from all tested strains combinations were observed at an initial pH 5, a temperature of 38 °C, and an initial Cd(II) concentration of 50 mg L-1, while the performance of bacterial strains on Pb(II) removal was strongly correlated to initial pH and temperature conditions. Moreover, the efficiency of bacterial strains in removing both PTEs, Pb(II) and Cd(II), from an aqueous matrix was considerably higher when they were used as a mixed culture rather than pure. According to field emission SEM (FESEM) and EDS analysis, the two bacterial strains showed different mechanisms in removing Cd(II): Bacillus sp. Q5 bio-accumulated Cd(II) in its periplasmic space, whereas Bacillus sp. Q3 bio-accumulated Cd(II) on its cell surface. On the other hand, Pb(II) is removed by chemical precipitation (lead sulfide) induced by both Bacillus sp. Q3 and Q5. This study discloses new aspects of Pb(II) and Cd(II) bioremediation mechanisms in Bacillus species that can be extremely useful for designing and operating novel PTEs bioremediation processes.
Project description:Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) and Hybrid Pennisetum (Pennisetum americanum × P. purpureum Schumach) are tall, fast-growing perennial C4 bunchgrasses that have been in recent developed as the most appropriate biomass feedstock in many countries for exploring various biofuel products. However, the challenges of increasing plant biomass yield and enhancing their stress tolerance, especially on marginal lands, have been existed for a long while. In the past several years, bacterial endophytes used as bio-fertilizers for improving crop production have offered an opportunity to facilitate high biomass yield of energy crops in a more sustainable manner. RESULTS:A total of 16 endophytic bacteria strains were isolated and purified from the roots of elephant grass, which were classified into four bacterial genera: Sphingomonas, Pantoea, Bacillus, and Enterobacter. Four strains, pp01, pp02, pp04, and pp06, represented four different genera, were then selected and tested in vitro for their plant growth promoting properties, effects on plant growth and salt stress tolerance of Hybrid Pennisetum. The inoculation with these four bacterial mixture demonstrated a significant plant growth promotion for Hybrid Pennisetum from the normal to salt stress conditions at 0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. The highest promotion rate for biomass yield was 116.01 and 81.72 % for shoot fresh weight and dry weight, respectively. The bacterial strains tested were shown to solubilize insoluble phosphate, fix nitrogen, produce indole acetic acid and ammonia, but only strains from Sphingomonas, Bacillus, and Enterobacter can produce siderophore. In addition, the endophyte strains tested were all able to successfully colonize the roots of Hybrid Pennisetum, reaching upto 12.12 ± 0.98 CFU/g fresh roots at the 3rd day of inoculation. CONCLUSION:The four endophytic bacteria from elephant grass significantly promoted plant growth and biomass yield, alleviated the harmful effects of salt stress on Hybrid Pennisetum. These bacteria have indicated some unique properties that are very valuable for exploiting bio-inoculants aiding in the efforts to establish a sustainable and large-scale feedstock production system for Hybrid Pennisetum, particularly, on the saline marginal lands.
Project description:Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses.
Project description:Spray paint exhaust gas contains recalcitrant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX). Treating BTX with a biofilter often achieves unsatisfactory results because the biofilter lacks efficient microbial community. In this work, three strains for BTX degradation were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis by using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. A consortium of highly efficient microbial community was then constructed on a stable biofilm to treat BTX in a biofilter. A relatively suitable ratio of P. putida, B. cereus and B. subtilis was obtained. An efficiency of over 90% was achieved in the biofilter with VOC concentration of 1000 mg/m3 through inoculation with the microbial community after only 10 days of operation. Thus, fast start-up of the biofilter was realised. Analysis of intermediate products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that BTX was degraded into short-chain aldehydes or acids via ring opening reactions.
Project description:Bio-production of cadaverine from cheap carbon sources for synthesizing bio-based polyamides is becoming more common. Here, a novel fermentation process for cadaverine bio-production from glucose was implemented by using a microbial consortium of two engineered Escherichia coli strains to relieve the toxic effect of cadaverine on fermentation efficiency. To achieve controllable growth of strains in the microbial consortium, two engineered E. coli strains grown separately on different carbon sources were first constructed. The strains were, an L-lysine-producing E. coli NT1004 with glucose as carbon source, and a cadaverine-producing E. coli CAD03 with glucose metabolism deficiency generated by modifying the PTSGlc system with CRISPR-Cas9 technology and inactivating cadaverine degradation pathways. Co-culturing these two engineered E. coli strains with a mixture of glucose and glycerol led to successful production of cadaverine. After optimizing cultivation conditions, a cadaverine titer of 28.5 g/L was achieved with a multi-stage constant-speed feeding strategy.
Project description:Five strains of bacteria, namely, Exiguobacterium sp. ASW-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ASW-2, Alcaligenes sp. ASW-3, Alcaligenes sp. ASS-1, and Bacillus sp. ASS-2, were isolated from the Zhejiang coast in China. The mixed flora of the five strains performed well with degrading 75.1% crude oil (1%, w/v) in 7 days. The calcium alginate-activated carbon embedding carrier was used to immobilize bacterial consortium. Immobilized cells performed better than free ones in variations of environmental factors containing incubated temperature, initial pH, salinity of the medium and crude oil concentration. The degradation process of crude oil by immobilized bacteria was accelerated compared with that of the free ones. Bacterial consortium showed better performance on biodegradation of normal alkanes than that of PAHs. Improvement of immobilization on the biodegradation efficiency of normal alkanes (31.9%) was apparently high than that of PAHs (1.9%).