Project description:Using genetically modifed mice to express fluorescent reporter in proglucagon expressing cells (GluVenus) or in all enteroendocrine cells (NeuroD1), we purifed positive and negative cells by FACS from duodenal epithelial cells and identified transcripts enriched in positive populations Overall design: Comparative transcriptomics between positive and negative cells in two different mice strains, with three replicates (2 for the GluVenus negative population)
Project description:Enteroendocrine cells have a critical role in regulation of appetite and energy balance. I-cells are a subtype of enteroendocrine cells localized in duodenum that release cholecystokinin in response to ingested fat and amino-acids. Despite their potentially pivotal role in nutrient sensing and feeding behaviour, native I-cells have previously been difficult to isolate and study. Here we describe a robust protocol for the isolation and characterization of native duodenal I-cells and additionally, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR we determined that mouse duodenal I-cells contain mRNA transcripts encoding key fatty acid and endocannabinoid receptors including the long chain fatty acid receptors GPR40/FFAR1, GPR120/O3FAR1; short chain fatty acid receptors GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/FFAR2; the oleoylethanolamide receptor GPR119 and the classic endocannabinoid receptor CB1. These data suggest that I-cells sense a wide range of gut lumen nutrients and also have the capacity to respond to signals of fatty-acid derivatives or endocannabinoid peptides.
Project description:Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an archetypal incretin hormone secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC) in response to ingested nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine whether CCK modulates enterocyte fatty acid uptake by primary mouse duodenal cells. Exposure of primary mouse duodenal cells to 10 pM sulfated CCK-8 caused a two fold increase in dodecanoic acid fatty acid (FA) uptake. The selective CCK A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (100 ?M) completely abolished the CCK-8 induced FA uptake. The CD36 fatty acid translocase-specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (1 ?M) also completely inhibited CCK-8 induced FA uptake, as did treatment with 200 ?M phloretin. Together these data show CCK induces FA uptake into duodenal enterocytes; this action involves the CCK-RA receptor and is carrier mediated by CD36.
Project description:Enteroendocrine cells, the largest and most diverse population of mammalian endocrine cells, comprise a number of different cell types in the gut mucosa that produce, store, and secrete small molecules, peptides, and/or larger proteins that regulate many aspects of gut physiology. Little is known about less typical endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa that do not contain secretory granules, such as brush or caveolated cells. We studied a subset of these enteroendocrine cells in duodenum that produce several peptides, including endogenous opioids, and that also express the Trpm5 cation channel.We studied expression patterns of Trpm5 and other molecules by immunohistochemical and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses of intestinal tissues from transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein from the Trpm5 promoter, as well as wild-type and Trpm5-null mice.We describe a type of enteroendocrine cell in mouse duodenum that is defined by the presence of Trpm5 and that does not contain typical secretory granules yet expresses endogenous opioids (beta-endorphin and Met-enkephalin) and uroguanylin in apical compartments close to the lumen of the gut.Solitary chemosensory cells that coexpress beta-endorphin, Met-enkephalin, uroguanylin, and Trpm5 exist in mouse duodenum. These cells are likely to secrete the bioactive peptides into the intestinal lumen in response to dietary factors; release of the opioid peptides requires the Trpm5 ion channel.
Project description:The spatial orientation of the enteroendocrine cells along the crypt-villus axis is closely associated with their differentiation in the intestine. Here we studied this relationship using primary duodenal crypts and an ex vivo organoid system established from cholecystokinin-green fluorescent protein (CCK-GFP) transgenic mice. In the primary duodenal crypts, GFP+ cells were found not only in the upper crypt but also at the crypt base, where the stem cells reside. Many GFP+ cells below +4 position were positive for the putative intestinal stem cell markers, leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5, CD133, and doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1, and also for the neuroendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3. However, these cells were neither stem nor transient amplifying precursor cells because they were negative for both Ki-67 and phospho-Histone H3 and positive for the mature endocrine marker chromogranin A. Furthermore, these cells expressed multiple endocrine hormones. Tracking of GFP+ cells in the organoids from CCK-GFP mice indicated that GFP+ cells were first observed around the +4 position, some of which localized to the crypt base later in the culture period. These results suggest that a subset of enteroendocrine cells migrates down to the crypt base or stays localized at the crypt base, where they express stem and postmitotic endocrine markers. Further investigation of the function of this subset may provide novel insights into the genesis and development of enteroendocrine cells as well as enteroendocrine tumorigenesis.
Project description:Oral ingestion of carbohydrate triggers glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) secretion, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. By measuring GLP1 concentrations in murine portal vein, we found that the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel is not essential for glucose-induced GLP1 secretion from enteroendocrine L cells, while the sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is required, at least in the early phase (5?min) of secretion. By contrast, co-administration of the ?-glucosidase inhibitor (?-GI) miglitol plus maltose evoked late-phase secretion in a glucose transporter 2-dependent manner. We found that GLP1 secretion induced by miglitol plus maltose was significantly higher than that by another ?-GI, acarbose, plus maltose, despite the fact that acarbose inhibits maltase more potently than miglitol. As miglitol activates SGLT3, we compared the effects of miglitol on GLP1 secretion with those of acarbose, which failed to depolarize the Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human SGLT3. Oral administration of miglitol activated duodenal enterochromaffin (EC) cells as assessed by immunostaining of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin kinase 2 (phospho-CaMK2). In contrast, acarbose activated much fewer enteroendocrine cells, having only modest phospho-CaMK2 immunoreactivity. Single administration of miglitol triggered no GLP1 secretion, and GLP1 secretion by miglitol plus maltose was significantly attenuated by atropine pretreatment, suggesting regulation via vagal nerve. Thus, while ?-GIs generally delay carbohydrate absorption and potentiate GLP1 secretion, miglitol also activates duodenal EC cells, possibly via SGLT3, and potentiates GLP1 secretion through the parasympathetic nervous system.
Project description:Enteroendocrine cells are essential for the regulation of glucose metabolism, but it is unknown whether they are associated with clinical features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and fasting plasma metabolites.We aimed to identify fasting plasma metabolites that associate with duodenal L cell, K cell and delta cell densities in subjects with MetS with ranging levels of insulin resistance.In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated L, K and delta cell density in duodenal biopsies from treatment-naïve males with MetS using machine-learning methodology.We identified specific clinical biomarkers and plasma metabolites associated with L cell and delta cell density. L cell density was associated with increased plasma metabolite levels including symmetrical dimethylarginine, 3-aminoisobutyric acid, kynurenine and glycine. In turn, these L cell-linked fasting plasma metabolites correlated with clinical features of MetS.Our results indicate a link between duodenal L cells, plasma metabolites and clinical characteristics of MetS. We conclude that duodenal L cells associate with plasma metabolites that have been implicated in human glucose metabolism homeostasis. Disentangling the causal relation between L cells and these metabolites might help to improve the (small intestinal-driven) pathophysiology behind insulin resistance in human obesity.
Project description:Severe congenital diarrhea occurs in approximately half of patients with Aristaless-Related Homeobox (ARX) null mutations. The cause of this diarrhea is unknown. In a mouse model of intestinal Arx deficiency, the prevalence of a subset of enteroendocrine cells is altered, leading to diarrhea. Because polyalanine expansions within the ARX protein are the most common mutations found in ARX-related disorders, we sought to characterize the enteroendocrine population in human tissue of an ARX mutation and in a mouse model of the corresponding polyalanine expansion (Arx).Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were the primary modalities used to characterize the enteroendocrine populations. Daily weights were determined for the growth curves, and Oil-Red-O staining on stool and tissue identified neutral fats.An expansion of 7 alanines in the first polyalanine tract of both human ARX and mouse Arx altered enteroendocrine differentiation. In human tissue, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and somatostatin populations were reduced, whereas the chromogranin A population was unchanged. In the mouse model, cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 populations were also lost, although the somatostatin-expressing population was increased. The ARX protein was present in human tissue, whereas the Arx protein was degraded in the mouse intestine.ARX/Arx is required for the specification of a subset of enteroendocrine cells in both humans and mice. Owing to protein degradation, the Arx mouse recapitulates findings of the intestinal Arx null model, but is not able to further the study of the differential effects of the ARX protein on its transcriptional targets in the intestine.
Project description:We generated knock-in mice expressing GFP under the control of the endogenous GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide) promoter that enable the isolation of a purified population of small intestine K cells. Using RNA-Seq, we comprehensively characterized the transcriptomes of GIP-GFP cells as well as the entire enteroendocrine lineage derived from Neurogenin3 (Ngn3)-expressing progenitors. We interrogated the whole transcriptome of FACS-isolated small intestine GIPGFP cells using high-throughput mRNA sequencing. We also obtained the global gene expression patterns of the entire enteroendocrine cell lineage as well as the non-enteroendocrine cell population, comprising enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. To achieve this, small intestine epithelial cells from male mice resulting from the breeding of Neurogenin3 (Ngn3)-Cre mice with ROSA26-LoxP-STOP-LoxP-tomato indicator mice were isolated based on Tomato fluorescence and negative staining for CD45. Due to the small cell numbers, we constructed each of the three RNA-Seq libraries (GIPGFP, Ngn3TOMATO, and Ngn3-) using a pool of equal amounts of individual RNA samples without RNA amplification.
Project description:The enteroendocrine cell is the cornerstone of gastrointestinal chemosensation. In the intestine and colon, this cell is stimulated by nutrients, tastants that elicit the perception of flavor, and bacterial by-products; and in response, the cell secretes hormones like cholecystokinin and peptide YY--both potent regulators of appetite. The development of transgenic mice with enteroendocrine cells expressing green fluorescent protein has allowed for the elucidation of the apical nutrient sensing mechanisms of the cell. However, the basal secretory aspects of the enteroendocrine cell remain largely unexplored, particularly because a complete account of the enteroendocrine cell ultrastructure does not exist. Today, the fine ultrastructure of a specific cell can be revealed in the third dimension thanks to the invention of serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM). Here, we bridged confocal microscopy with SBEM to identify the enteroendocrine cell of the mouse and study its ultrastructure in the third dimension. The results demonstrated that 73.5% of the peptide-secreting vesicles in the enteroendocrine cell are contained within an axon-like basal process. We called this process a neuropod. This neuropod contains neurofilaments, which are typical structural proteins of axons. Surprisingly, the SBEM data also demonstrated that the enteroendocrine cell neuropod is escorted by enteric glia--the cells that nurture enteric neurons. We extended these structural findings into an in vitro intestinal organoid system, in which the addition of glial derived neurotrophic factors enhanced the development of neuropods in enteroendocrine cells. These findings open a new avenue of exploration in gastrointestinal chemosensation by unveiling an unforeseen physical relationship between enteric glia and enteroendocrine cells.