Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease involving defective immune responses against invasive microbiota. A Rab32-dependent pathway that eliminates intracellular bacteria in dendritic cells (DCs) was recently reported. In this study, we examined whether Rab32 in DCs participates in the pathogenesis of IBD Overall design: WT and Rab32 dendritic cell specific knock out mice were administrated with 2.5% DSS for 9 days to induce colitis. On day 9, colon tissues were harvest for qPCR analysis. 3 mice in each group.
Project description:Wild type (WT), Nod2-/-, Pglyrp3-/-, and Pglyrp3-/-Nod2-/- mice (BALB/c) were treated with oral 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 48, 72, or 96 hrs, their colons were removed and homogenized, and RNA was isolated using the TRIZOL method. Quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify the amounts of mRNA in the colon using the inflammatory gene expression RT2 Profiler PCR Array from Qiagen/SA Biosciences. qRT-PCR gene expression profiling
Project description:The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of colitis is widely used as a result of its simplicity and reproducibility and because it mimics clinicopathological disease features. Its effectiveness depends on the mouse strain, DSS MW, and brand. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is highly sensitive for analyzing cytokine mRNA expression. We analyzed an acute model of DSS treatment in Balb/c mice for the onset of colitis using qRT-PCR for the quantification of a mouse cytokine transcript. We compared differences among 1--and 2-step qRT-PCR for transcript quantification, the effect of multiple concentrations of DSS, and the use of 2 reference genes in 3 portions of the colon. A reliable and sensitive 1-step protocol for qRT-PCR was established with a modified double LiCl precipitation for RNA isolation. The variability of 2 reference genes, ?-actin and eukaryotic elongation factor 2, was compared, and expression of IL-6 was analyzed in 3 segments of the colon. The RNA cleaning protocol prevented inhibition of qRT-PCR by DSS, and RNA loss was minimized. No clinical differences among the different DSS concentrations were seen on d 7, but higher concentrations resulted in the appearance of earlier symptoms. Higher efficiency and sensitivity of the 1-step qRT-PCR reaction using eukaryotic elongation factor 2 were obtained and also less variability. Although expression levels of IL-6 were high in the middle and distal colon, the middle section had consistently less variability in values. Thus, this segment is recommended for future studies. These factors influence the statistical significance of data and need to be considered to get accurate and reliable results and to improve comparisons of the published colitis experiments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE) in DSS-experimental murine colitis. METHODS:Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using DSS5% for 5 days, control group received water. RNA was extracted from inflamed and non-inflamed colon. Using RT-qPCR, comparative analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria and relative colonic TNF-? and IL-1? gene expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle. RESULTS:Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh), ?-actin (Actb), or ?2-microglobulin (?2m) showed the highest variability within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2) were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. Normalization of colonic TNF-? and IL-1? mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used. Depending on the genes used to normalize the data, statistical significance varied from significant when TBP / Eef2 were used to non-significant when Gapdh, Actb or ?2m were used. CONCLUSIONS:This study highlights the appropriate choice of RGE to ensure adequate normalization of RT-qPCR data when using this model. Suboptimal RGE may explain controversial results from published studies. We recommend using Tbp and Eef2 instead of Gapdh, Actb or ?2m as reference genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gene expression analysis is an important tool in contemporary research, with real-time PCR as the method of choice for quantifying transcription levels. Co-analysis of suitable reference genes is crucial for accurate expression normalisation. Reference gene expression may vary, e.g., among species or tissues; thus, candidate genes must be tested prior to use in expression studies. The domestic cat is an important study subject in both medical research and veterinary medicine. The aim of the present study was to develop TaqMan real-time PCR assays for eight potential reference genes and to test their applicability for feline samples, including blood, lymphoid, endocrine, and gastrointestinal tissues from healthy cats, and neoplastic tissues from FeLV-infected cats. RESULTS: RNA extraction from tissues was optimised for minimal genomic DNA (gDNA) contamination without use of a DNase treatment. Real-time PCR assays were established and optimised for v-abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homolog (ABL), beta-actin (ACTB), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), beta-glucuronidase (GUSB), hydroxymethyl-bilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), ribosomal protein S7 (RPS7), and tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ). The presence of pseudogenes was confirmed for four of the eight investigated genes (ACTB, HPRT, RPS7, and YWHAZ). The assays were tested together with previously developed TaqMan assays for feline glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and the universal 18S rRNA gene. Significant differences were found among the expression levels of the ten candidate reference genes, with a ~106-fold expression difference between the most abundant (18S rRNA) and the least abundant genes (ABL, GUSB, and HMBS). The expression stability determined by the geNorm and NormFinder programs differed significantly. Using the ANOVA-based NormFinder program, RPS7 was the most stable gene in the tissues studied, followed by ACTB and ABL; B2M, HPRT, and the 18S rRNA genes were the least stable ones. CONCLUSION: The reference gene expression stability varied considerably among the feline tissues investigated. No tested gene was optimal for normalisation in all tissues. For the majority of the tissues, two to three reference genes were necessary for accurate normalisation. The present study yields essential information on the correct choice of feline reference genes depending on the tissues analysed.
Project description:Leukocyte recruitment is pivotal for the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and controlled by the specificity and interactions of chemokines and adhesion molecules. Interactions of the adhesion molecules ?4?7-integrin and mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) promote the accumulation of pathogenic T-cell populations in the inflamed intestine. We aimed to elucidate the significance of ?7-integrin expression on innate immune cells for the pathogenesis of IBD. We demonstrate that ?7-integrin deficiency protects recombination-activating gene-2 (RAG-2)-deficient mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and coincides with decreased numbers of colonic effector monocytes. We also show that ?7-integrin is expressed on most CD11b(+)CD64(low)Ly6C(+) bone marrow progenitors and contributes to colonic recruitment of these proinflammatory monocytes. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CD115(+) wild-type (WT) monocytes partially restored the susceptibility of RAG-2/?7-integrin double-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of ?7-integrin-expressing monocytes for the development of DSS colitis. We also reveal that genetic ablation of MAdCAM-1 ameliorates experimental colitis in RAG-2-deficient mice as well. In summary, we demonstrate a previously unknown role of ?4?7-integrin-MAdCAM-1 interactions as drivers of colitis by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon.
Project description:Severity assessment in laboratory animals is an important issue regarding the implementation of the 3R concept into biomedical research and pivotal in current EU regulations. In mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease severity assessment is usually undertaken by clinical scoring, especially by monitoring reduction of body weight. This requires daily observance and handling of each mouse, which is time consuming, stressful for the animal and necessitates an experienced observer. The time to integrate to nest test (TINT) is an easily applicable test detecting disturbed welfare by measuring the time interval mice need to integrate nesting material to an existing nest. Here, TINT was utilized to assess severity in a mouse DSS-colitis model. TINT results depended on the group size of mice maintained per cage with most consistent time intervals measured when co-housing 4 to 5 mice. Colitis was induced with 1% or 1.5% DSS in group-housed WT and Cd14-deficient mice. Higher clinical scores and loss of body weight were detected in 1.5% compared to 1% DSS treated mice. TINT time intervals showed no dose dependent differences. However, increased clinical scores, body weight reductions, and increased TINT time intervals were detected in Cd14-/- compared to WT mice revealing mouse strain related differences. Therefore, TINT is an easily applicable method for severity assessment in a mouse colitis model detecting CD14 related differences, but not dose dependent differences. As TINT revealed most consistent results in group-housed mice, we recommend utilization as an additional method substituting clinical monitoring of the individual mouse.
Project description:Probiotic properties of Enterococcus strains have been reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effects of Enterococcus (E.) durans TN-3 on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis.BALB/c mice were fed with 4.0% DSS in normal chow. Administration of TN-3 (10mg/day) was initiated 7days before the start of DSS feeding. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by real time-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The lymphocyte subpopulation were analyzed by flow cytometry. The gut microbiota profile was analyzed by a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (T-RFLP).The disease activity index and histological colitis score were significantly lower in the DSS plus TN-3 group than in the DSS group. The mucosal mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-?) decreased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. The proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the mucosa increased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. Both fecal butyrate levels and the diversity of fecal microbial community were significantly higher in the TN-3 plus DSS group than in the DSS group.E. durans TN-3 exerted an inhibitory effect on the development of DSS colitis. This action might be mediated by the induction of Treg cells and the restoration of the diversity of the gut microbiota.
Project description:We have demonstrated that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets alter fecal microbiota; however, little is known regarding their effect on colon inflammation. Our aim was to characterize the effect of sorghum bran diets on intestinal homeostasis during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 20/diet) were provided diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins) or Hi Tannin Black (both) sorghum bran. Colitis was induced (N = 10/diet) with three separate 48-h exposures to 3% DSS, and feces were collected. On Day 82, animals were euthanized and the colon resected. Only discrete mucosal lesions, with no diarrhea or bloody stools, were observed in DSS rats. Only bran diets upregulated proliferation and Tff3, Tgf? and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) transporter expression after a DSS challenge. DSS did not significantly affect fecal SCFA concentrations. Bran diets alone upregulated repair mechanisms and SCFA transporter expression, which suggests these polyphenol-rich sorghum brans may suppress some consequences of colitis.
Project description:Currently, no easy and reliable methods allowing for the quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi in tissues of infected humans or animals are available. Due to the lack of suitable assays to detect B. burgdorferi CFU and the qualitative nature of the currently performed PCR assays, we decided to exploit the recently developed real-time PCR. This technology measures the release of fluorescent oligonucleotides during the PCR. Flagellin of B. burgdorferi was chosen as the target sequence. A linear quantitative detection range of 5 logs with a calculated detection limit of one to three spirochetes per assay reaction mixture was observed. The fact that no signals were obtained with closely related organisms such as Borrelia hermsii argues for a high specificity of this newly developed method. A similar method was developed to quantify mouse actin genomic sequences to allow for the standardization of spirochete load. The specificity and sensitivity of the B. burgdorferi and the actin real-time PCR were not altered when samples were spiked with mouse cells or spirochetes, respectively. To evaluate the applicability of the real-time PCR, we used the mouse model of Lyme disease. The fate of B. burgdorferi was monitored in different tissues from inbred mice and from mice treated with antibiotics. Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice had markedly higher burdens of bacterial DNA than resistant BALB/c mice, and penicillin G treatment significantly reduced the numbers of spirochetes. Since these results show a close correlation between clinical symptoms and bacterial burden of tissues, we are currently analyzing human biopsy specimens to evaluate the real-time PCR in a diagnostic setting.