Project description:Poxvirus virions, whose outer membrane surrounds two lateral bodies and a core, contain at least 70 different proteins. The F18 phosphoprotein is one of the most abundant core components and is essential for the assembly of mature virions. We report here the results of a structure/function analysis in which the role of conserved cysteine residues, clusters of charged amino acids and clusters of hydrophobic/aromatic amino acids have been assessed. Taking advantage of a recombinant virus in which F18 expression is IPTG (isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside) dependent, we developed a transient complementation assay to evaluate the ability of mutant alleles of F18 to support virion morphogenesis and/or to restore the production of infectious virus. We have also examined protein-protein interactions, comparing the ability of mutant and WT F18 proteins to interact with WT F18 and to interact with the viral A30 protein, another essential core component. We show that F18 associates with an A30-containing multiprotein complex in vivo in a manner that depends upon clusters of hydrophobic/aromatic residues in the N' terminus of the F18 protein but that it is not required for the assembly of this complex. Finally, we confirmed that two PSSP motifs within F18 are the sites of phosphorylation by cellular proline-directed kinases in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of both of these phosphorylation sites has no apparent impact on virion morphogenesis but leads to the assembly of virions with significantly reduced infectivity.
Project description:Heavy metals (HMs) are compounds that can be hazardous and impair growth of living organisms. Bacteria have evolved the capability not only to cope with heavy metals but also to detoxify polluted environments. Three heavy metal-resistant strains of Mucilaginibacer rubeus and one of Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis were isolated from the gold/copper Zijin mining site, Longyan, Fujian, China. These strains were shown to exhibit high resistance to heavy metals with minimal inhibitory concentration reaching up to 3.5 mM Cu(II), 21 mM Zn(II), 1.2 mM Cd(II), and 10.0 mM As(III). Genomes of the four strains were sequenced by Illumina. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of a high abundance of heavy metal resistance (HMR) determinants. One of the strain, M. rubeus P2, carried genes encoding 6 putative PIB-1-ATPase, 5 putative PIB-3-ATPase, 4 putative Zn(II)/Cd(II) PIB-4 type ATPase, and 16 putative resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type metal transporter systems. Moreover, the four genomes contained a high abundance of genes coding for putative metal binding chaperones. Analysis of the close vicinity of these HMR determinants uncovered the presence of clusters of genes potentially associated with mobile genetic elements. These loci included genes coding for tyrosine recombinases (integrases) and subunits of mating pore (type 4 secretion system), respectively allowing integration/excision and conjugative transfer of numerous genomic islands. Further in silico analyses revealed that their genetic organization and gene products resemble the Bacteroides integrative and conjugative element CTnDOT. These results highlight the pivotal role of genomic islands in the acquisition and dissemination of adaptive traits, allowing for rapid adaption of bacteria and colonization of hostile environments.
Project description:F18-fimbriated Escherichia coli are associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and edema disease. Adhesion of F18-fimbriated bacteria to the small intestine of susceptible pigs is mediated by the minor fimbrial subunit FedF. However, the target cell receptor for FedF has remained unidentified. Here we report that F18-fimbriated E. coli selectively interact with glycosphingolipids having blood group ABH determinants on type 1 core, and blood group A type 4 heptaglycosylceramide. The minimal binding epitope was identified as the blood group H type 1 determinant (Fucalpha2Galbeta3GlcNAc), while an optimal binding epitope was created by addition of the terminal alpha3-linked galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine of the blood group B type 1 determinant (Galalpha3(Fucalpha2)Galbeta3GlcNAc) and the blood group A type 1 determinant (GalNAcalpha3(Fucalpha2)-Galbeta3GlcNAc). To assess the role of glycosphingolipid recognition by F18-fimbriated E. coli in target tissue adherence, F18-binding glycosphingolipids were isolated from the small intestinal epithelium of blood group O and A pigs and characterized by mass spectrometry and proton NMR. The only glycosphingolipid with F18-binding activity of the blood group O pig was an H type 1 pentaglycosylceramide (Fucalpha2Galbeta3GlcNAc-beta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer). In contrast, the blood group A pig had a number of F18-binding glycosphingolipids, characterized as A type 1 hexaglycosylceramide (GalNAcalpha3(Fucalpha2)Galbeta3GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer), A type 4 heptaglycosylceramide (GalNAcalpha3(Fucalpha2)Galbeta3GalNAcbeta3Galalpha4Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer), A type 1 octaglycosylceramide (GalNAcalpha3(Fucalpha2)Galbeta3GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta3GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer), and repetitive A type 1 nonaglycosylceramide (GalNAcalpha3(Fucalpha2)Galbeta3GalNAcalpha3-(Fucalpha2)Galbeta3GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer). No blood group antigen-carrying glycosphingolipids were recognized by a mutant E. coli strain with deletion of the FedF adhesin, demonstrating that FedF is the structural element mediating binding of F18-fimbriated bacteria to blood group ABH determinants.
Project description:Escherichia coli F18 (E. coli F18) is mainly responsible for post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. The genetic basis and regulatory mechanism of E. coli F18 resistance in Chinese domestic weaned piglets remain unclear. Meishan piglets were used as model animals to test their susceptibility to E. coli F18. By performing a comparative transcriptome study on duodenum tissues of sensitive and resistant pigs, we identified 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 125 upregulated and 73 downregulated) in the resistant pigs. DEGs were predominately involved in immune system pathways, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. qPCR and western blot showed CD14, IFN-?, TLR4 and IL-1?, etc. in the TLR signaling pathway had significantly higher expression levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced small intestinal epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2) than those in normal IPEC-J2 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the increased expression of CD14 gene in the E. coli F18-resistant individuals. After CD14 knockdown, the levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 were significantly reduced in IPEC-J2 cell supernatants. The adhesion ability of F18ab strain with IPEC-J2 cells was significantly increased (p?<?0.01). This study revealed the TLR signaling pathway, and especially CD14, probably plays an important role in resistance to E. coli F18 infection in Chinese domestic piglets.
Project description:Escherichia coli F18 is mainly responsible for post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. The molecular regulation of E. coli F18 resistance in Chinese domestic weaned piglets is still obscure. We used Meishan piglets as model animals to test their susceptibility to E. coli F18. Small RNA duodenal libraries were constructed for E. coli F18-sensitive and -resistant weaned piglets challenged with E. coli F18 and sequenced using Illumina Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology.Sequencing results showed that 3,475,231 and 37,198,259 clean reads were obtained, with 311 known miRNAs differently expressed in resistant and sensitive groups, respectively. Twenty-four miRNAs, including 15 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated, demonstrated more than a 2-fold differential expression between the F18-resistant and -sensitive piglets. Stem-loop RT-qPCR showed that miR-136, miR-196b, miR-499-5p and miR-218-3p significantly expressed in intestinal tissue (p?<?0.05). KEGG pathway analysis for target genes revealed that differently expressed miRNAs were involved in infectious diseases, signal transduction and immune system pathways. Interestingly, the expression of miR-218-3p in intestinal tissue had a very significant negative correlation with target DLG5 (P?<?0.01).Based on the expression correlation between miRNA and target genes analysis, we speculate that miR-218-3p targeting to DLG5, appears to be very promising candidate for miRNAs involved in response to E. coli F18 infection. The present study provides improved database information on pig miRNAs, better understanding of the genetic basis of E. coli F18 resistance in local Chinese pig breeds and lays a new foundation for identifying novel markers of E. coli F18 resistance.This article was reviewed by Neil R Smalheiser and Weixiong Zhang.
Project description:10-Chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide (F18), an analog of calanolide A, is a novel potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor against HIV-1. Here, we report the metabolic profile and the results of associated biochemical studies of F18 in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of F18 were identified based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and/or nuclear magnetic resonance. Twenty-three metabolites of F18 were observed in liver microsomes in vitro. The metabolism of F18 involved 4-propyl chain oxidation, 10-chloromethyl oxidative dechlorination and 12-carbonyl reduction. Three metabolites (M1, M3-1, and M3-2) were also found in rat blood after oral administration of F18 and the reduction metabolites M3-1 and M3-2 were found to exhibit high potency for the inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro. The oxidative metabolism of F18 was mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4 in human microsomes, whereas flavin-containing monooxygenases and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were found to be involved in its carbonyl reduction. In human cytosol, multiple carbonyl reductases, including aldo-keto reductase 1C, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and quinone oxidoreductase 1, were demonstrated to be responsible for F18 carbonyl reduction. In conclusion, the in vitro metabolism of F18 involves multiple drug metabolizing enzymes, and several metabolites exhibited anti-HIV-1 activities. Notably, the described results provide the first demonstration of the capability of FMOs for carbonyl reduction.
Project description:Diarrhea and edema disease in weaned piglets due to infection by Escherichia coli F18 is a leading cause of economic loss in the pig industry. Resistance to E. coli F18 depends on expression of receptors on intestinal epithelial cells, and individual immunity. This study was conducted in Sutai pig E. coli F18-resistant and -susceptible full sib-pair individuals, identified on the basis of resource populations and verification of adhesion assays. The molecular mechanism underlying E. coli F18 resistance was investigated through analysis of the expression of E. coli F18 receptor associated and innate immunity proteins, using proteomics and bioinformatics techniques. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis revealed a total of 20 differentially expressed proteins in E. coli F18-resistant and -susceptible groups (10 upregulated and 10 downregulated). A total of 16 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectral analysis. According to gene ontology and pathway analysis, differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in cell adhesion, immune response and other biologically relevant functions. Network analysis of interactions between differentially expressed proteins indicated a likelihood of their involvement in E. coli F18 infection. The expression levels of several important proteins including actin beta (ACTB), vinculin (VCL), heat stress proteins (HSPs) and transferrin (TF) in E. coli F18-resistant and -susceptible individuals were verified by Western blotting, supporting the identification of ACTB, VCL, HSPs and TF as promising candidate proteins for association with E. coli F18 susceptibility.