Project description:Alternative premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling gene expression. Splicing patterns are determined by both RNA-binding proteins and nuclear pre-mRNA structure. Here, we analyzed pre-mRNA splicing patterns, RNA-binding sites, and RNA structures near these binding sites coordinately controlled by two splicing factors: the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNPA1 and the RNA helicase DDX5. We identified thousands of alternative pre-mRNA splicing events controlled by these factors by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) following RNAi. Enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) on nuclear extracts was used to identify protein-RNA-binding sites for both proteins in the nuclear transcriptome. We found a significant overlap between hnRNPA1 and DDX5 splicing targets and that they share many closely linked binding sites as determined by eCLIP analysis. In vivo SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) chemical RNA structure probing data were used to model RNA structures near several exons controlled and bound by both proteins. Both sequence motifs and in vivo UV cross-linking sites for hnRNPA1 and DDX5 were used to map binding sites in their RNA targets, and often these sites flanked regions of higher chemical reactivity, suggesting an organized nature of nuclear pre-mRNPs. This work provides a first glimpse into the possible RNA structures surrounding pre-mRNA splicing factor-binding sites.
Project description:Alternative pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling gene expression. Splicing patterns are determined by both RNA binding proteins and nuclear pre-mRNA structure. Here, we analyze pre-mRNA splicing patterns, RNA binding sites and RNA structures near these binding sites coordinately controlled by two splicing factors, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNPA1 and the RNA helicase DDX5. We identified thousands of alternative pre-mRNA splicing events controlled by these factors by RNA-seq following RNA interference. Enhanced CLIP (eCLIP) on nuclear extracts was used to identify protein-RNA binding sites for both proteins in the nuclear transcriptome. We found a significant overlap between hnRNPA1 and DDX5 splicing targets and that they share many closely linked binding sites as determined by eCLIP analysis. In vivo SHAPE chemical RNA structure probing data was used to model RNA structures near several exons controlled and bound by both proteins. Both sequence motifs and in vivo UV crosslinking sites for hnRNPA1 and DDX5 were used to map binding sites in their RNA targets and often these sites flanked regions of higher chemical reactivity suggesting an organized nature to nuclear pre-mRNPs. This work provides a first glimpse into the possible RNA structures surrounding pre-mRNA splicing factor binding sites. Overall design: A human myeloid leukemia cell line, K562 cells, were treated with hnRNPA1 and DDX5 siRNA. Two replicate samples of hnRNPA1 knockdown and DDX5 knockdown were prepared for RNA-seq for differential pre-mRNA splicing analysis, along with control scramble siRNA samples. Triplicate eCLIP samples were prepared for hnRNPA1 and DDX5 using nuclear extracts in K562 cells, with input control and no UV treatment control samples.
Project description:The mammalian DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5, its paralog DDX17, and their orthologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, namely Dbp2 and Rm62, define a subfamily of DEAD-box proteins. Members from this subfamily share highly conserved protein sequences and cellular functions. They are involved in multiple steps of RNA metabolism including mRNA processing, microRNA processing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA decay, and regulation of long noncoding RNA activities. The DDX5/Dbp2 subfamily is also implicated in transcription regulation, cellular signaling pathways, and energy metabolism. One emerging theme underlying the diverse cellular functions is that the DDX5/Dbp2 subfamily of DEAD-box helicases act as chaperones for complexes formed by RNA molecules and proteins (RNP) in vivo. This RNP chaperone activity governs the functions of various RNA species through their lifetime. Importantly, mammalian DDX5 and DDX17 are involved in cancer progression when overexpressed through alteration of transcription and signaling pathways, meaning that they are possible targets for cancer therapy. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications RNA Structure and Dynamics > Influence of RNA Structure in Biological Systems RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HIV-1 does not encode a helicase and hijacks those of the cell for efficient replication. We and others previously showed that the DEAD box helicase, DDX5, is an essential HIV dependency factor. DDX5 was recently shown to be associated with the 7SK snRNP. Cellular positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is bound in an inactive form with HEXIM1/2 on 7SK snRNP. The Tat/P-TEFb complex is essential for efficient processivity of Pol II in HIV-1 transcription elongation and Tat competes with HEXIM1/2 for P-TEFb. We investigated the precise role of DDX5 in HIV replication using siRNA mediated knockdown and rescue with DDX5 mutants which prevent protein-protein interactions and RNA and ATP binding. RESULTS:We demonstrate a critical role for DDX5 in the Tat/HEXIM1 interaction. DDX5 acts to potentiate Tat activity and can bind both Tat and HEXIM1 suggesting it may facilitate the dissociation of HEXIM1/2 from the 7SK-snRNP complex, enhancing Tat/P-TEFb availability. We show knockdown of DDX5 in a T cell line significantly reduces HIV-1 infectivity and viral protein production. This activity is unique to DDX5 and cannot be substituted by its close paralog DDX17. Overexpression of DDX5 stimulates the Tat/LTR promoter but suppresses other cellular and viral promoters. Individual mutations of conserved ATP binding, RNA binding, helicase related or protein binding motifs within DDX5 show that the N terminal RNA binding motifs, the Walker B and the glycine doublet motifs are essential for this function. The Walker A and RNA binding motifs situated on the transactivation domain are however dispensable. CONCLUSION:DDX5 is an essential cellular factor for efficient HIV transcription elongation. It interacts with Tat and may potentiate the availability of P-TEFb through sequestering HEXIM1.
Project description:HIV-1 Rev plays an important role in the late phase of HIV-1 replication, which facilitates export of unspliced viral mRNAs from the nucleus to cytoplasm in infected cells. Recent studies have shown that DDX1 and DDX3 are co-factors of Rev for the export of HIV-1 transcripts. In this report, we have demonstrated that DDX5 (p68), which is a multifunctional DEAD-box RNA helicase, functions as a new cellular co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. We found that DDX5 affects Rev function through the Rev-RRE axis and subsequently enhances HIV-1 replication. Confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that DDX5 binds to Rev and this interaction is largely dependent on RNA. If the DEAD-box motif of DDX5 is mutated, DDX5 loses almost all of its ability to bind to Rev, indicating that the DEAD-box motif of DDX5 is required for the interaction between DDX5 and Rev. Our data indicate that interference of DDX5-Rev interaction could reduce HIV-1 replication and potentially provide a new molecular target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.
Project description:DEAD-box helicase 5 (Ddx5) functions as an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and as a transcriptional coactivator for several transcription factors; however, the developmental function of the ddx5 gene in vertebrates is not fully understood. We found that the zebrafish ddx5 gene was expressed in developing gonads. Using the genome editing technology transcription activator-like effector nuclease, we established a ddx5-disrupted zebrafish and examined the morphological phenotypes of the mutant. We found that the majority of ddx5-deficient mutants developed as fertile males with normal testes and a small number of ddx5-deficient mutants developed as infertile females with small ovaries. Apoptotic cell death at 31 days post fertilization was increased in thick immature gonads (presumptive developing ovaries) of the ddx5-deficient mutant compared to those of heterozygous wild-type fish, while the number of apoptotic cells in thin immature gonads (presumptive developing testes) was comparable between the mutant and wild-type animals. Histological analysis revealed that ovaries of adult ddx5-deficient females had fewer vitellogenic oocytes and a larger number of stage I and II oocytes. The amount of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the ddx5-deficient ovaries was high compared to that of wild-type ovaries, presumably leading to the mitotic arrest of oocyte maturation. Therefore, the ddx5 gene is dispensable for testis development, but it is essential for female sex differentiation and oocyte maturation in zebrafish.
Project description:DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 5 (DDX5) is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is overexpressed in various malignancies. Increasing evidence suggests that DDX5 participates in carcinogenesis and cancer progression via promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the functional role of DDX5 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we observed that DDX5 was significantly up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal tissues. The expression of DDX5 correlated strongly with Ki67 index and pathological stage of gastric cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that knockdown of DDX5 inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and xenografts growth, whereas ectopic expression of DDX5 promoted these cellular functions. Mechanically, DDX5 induced gastric cancer cell growth by activating mTOR/S6K1. Treatment of everolimus, the specific mTOR inhibitor, significantly attenuated DDX5-mediated cell proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of DDX5 and p-mTOR in gastric cancer tissues demonstrated a positive correlation. Taken together, these results revealed a novel role of DDX5 in gastric cancer cell proliferation via the mTOR pathway. Therefore, DDX5 may serve as a therapeutic target in gastric cancer.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy involves compounds that are cytotoxic to both normal and cancer cells, and relapsed AML is resistant to subsequent chemotherapy. Thus, agents are needed that selectively kill AML cells with minimal toxicity. Here, we report that AML is dependent on DDX5 and that inhibiting DDX5 expression slows AML cell proliferation in vitro and AML progression in vivo but is not toxic to cells from normal bone marrow. Inhibition of DDX5 expression in AML cells induces apoptosis via induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This apoptotic response can be blocked either by BCL2 overexpression or treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Combining DDX5 knockdown with a BCL2 family inhibitor cooperates to induce cell death in AML cells. By inhibiting DDX5 expression in vivo, we show that DDX5 is dispensable for normal hematopoiesis and tissue homeostasis. These results validate DDX5 as a potential target for blocking AML.
Project description:We recently identified a missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in DDX5 (rs1140409, p.S480A) that enhances the risk of developing cirrhosis. DDX5 is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and transcriptional modulator. We hypothesized that the activity of DDX5 in regulating fibrogenic gene transcription in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is altered by the S480A SNP. To test this, we employed two approaches: 1) transient overexpression of DDX5 cDNA or siRNA knockdown of endogenous DDX5, with replacement by either DDX5 wild type (WT) or SNP cDNA, or 2) stable expression of exogenous DDX5 WT and SNP in HSC lines. WT DDX5 mRNA in HSCs was inversely correlated with gene expression for alpha2(I) collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and transforming growth factor-beta1. Stable DDX5 SNP-expressing cells had higher basal and transforming growth factor-beta1-stimulated expression and enhanced promoter activities of fibrogenic genes. DDX5 variant-expressing cells also had higher Smad3 and AP-1-responsive reporter activities. In a one-hybrid GAL4 system, co-expression of the DDX5 SNP variant with chimeras of GAL4 DNA binding domain linked to JunD or Sp1 displayed higher transactivation of a GAL4-responsive reporter than that of DDX5 WT. Increased fibrogenic gene expression in DDX5 SNP-expressing cells was associated with reduced recruitment of DDX5 homodimers to responsive promoters, but there was no difference in the recruitment of the co-repressor HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1). These data suggest that DDX5 is a repressor of fibrogenic genes in HSCs through interaction with transcriptional complexes. The enhanced fibrogenic activity of the DDX5 risk variant is linked to a reduced repressive function toward these target genes.
Project description:The RNA helicase p68 (DDX5), a key player in RNA metabolism, belongs to the DEAD box family and is involved in the development of colorectal cancer. Here, we found both DDX5 and O-GlcNAcylation are up-regulated in colorectal cancer. In addition, DDX5 protein level is significantly positively correlated with the expression of O-GlcNAcylation. Although it was known DDX5 protein could be regulated by post-translational modification (PTM), how O-GlcNAcylation modification regulated of DDX5 remains unclear. Here we show that DDX5 interacts directly with OGT in the SW480 cell line, which is the only known enzyme that catalyses O-GlcNAcylation in humans. Meanwhile, O-GlcNAcylation could promote DDX5 protein stability. The OGT-DDX5 axis affects colorectal cancer progression mainly by regulating activation of the AKT/mTOR signalling pathway. Taken together, these results indicated that OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation stabilizes DDX5, promoting activation of the AKT/mTOR signalling pathway, thus accelerating colorectal cancer progression. This study not only reveals the novel functional of O-GlcNAcylation in regulating DDX5, but also reveals the carcinogenic effect of the OGT-DDX5 axis in colorectal cancer.