Project description:CD4+ T cells depletion affects gene expression in hippocampus of mice raised in enriched environment Enriched Environment Mice Hippocampi CD4+ T cells depleted or not (4 replicates) Overall design: http://www.genomique.info:8080/merge/index
Project description:The primary cilium, a sensory organelle, regulates cell proliferation and neuronal development of dentate granule cells in the hippocampus. However, its role in the function of mature dentate granule cells remains unknown. Here we specifically depleted and disrupted ciliary proteins IFT20 and Kif3A (respectively) in mature dentate granule cells and investigated hippocampus-dependent contextual memory and long-term plasticity at mossy fiber synapses. We found that depletion of IFT20 in these cells significantly impaired context-dependent fear-related memory. Furthermore, we tested synaptic plasticity of mossy fiber synapses in area CA3 and found increased long-term potentiation upon depletion of IFT20 or disruption of Kif3A. Our findings suggest a role of primary cilia in the memory function of mature dentate granule cells, which may result from abnormal mossy fiber synaptic plasticity. A direct link between the primary cilia of mature dentate granule cells and behavior will require further investigation using independent approaches to manipulate primary cilia.
Project description:Living in an enriched environment (EE) benefits health by acting synergistically on various biological systems including the immune and the central nervous systems. The dialog between the brain and the immune cells has recently gained interest and is thought to play a pivotal role in beneficial effects of EE. Recent studies show that T lymphocytes have an important role in hippocampal plasticity, learning, and memory, although the precise mechanisms by which they act on the brain remain elusive. Using a mouse model of EE, we show here that CD4+ T cells are essential for spinogenesis and glutamatergic synaptic function in the CA of the hippocampus. However, CD4+ lymphocytes do not influence EE-induced neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus, by contrast to what we previously demonstrated for CD8+ T cells. Importantly, CD4+ T cells located in the choroid plexus have a specific transcriptomic signature as a function of the living environment. Our study highlights the contribution of CD4+ T cells in the brain plasticity and function.
Project description:Comparison of gene expression profiles from Mus musculus brain (hippocampus) of animals kept in standard environment and enriched environment. The RNA-seq data comprise 4 groups: 2 age groups, each w/ and w/o enriched environment. Jena Centre for Systems Biology of Ageing - JenAge (www.jenage.de) Overall design: 20 samples in 4 groups: 5 months control (5 samples), 5 months enriched environment (5 samples), 24 months control (5 samples), 24 months enriched environment (5 samples)
Project description:The neuropsychiatric symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), such as anxiety and depression, can result from disease activity itself as well as psychological reaction to an unfavorable diagnosis. Accordingly, the literature reports evidence of increased anxiety-like behavior in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an accepted MS model. Due to the recently described critical role of platelets in inflammation and autoimmune disease, we examined the relationship between platelets, inflammation, and anxiety-like behavior in EAE. In the elevated plus maze, EAE-induced C57BL/6J mice showed decreased time spent in the open arms relative to vehicle-only controls, demonstrating an increase in anxiety-like behavior. This effect occurred in the presence of platelet⁻neuron association, but absence of lymphocytic infiltration, in the hippocampal parenchyma. Platelet depletion at the pre-clinical disease stage, using antibody-mediated lysis prevented the EAE-induced increase in anxiety-like behavior, while no significant difference in distance moved was recorded. Furthermore, platelet depletion was also associated with reduction of the pro-inflammatory environment to control levels in the hippocampus and prevention of EAE disease symptomology. These studies demonstrate the high efficacy of a platelet-targeting approach in preventing anxiety-like symptoms and clinical manifestations of EAE and have implications for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in MS.
Project description:Comparison of gene expression profiles from Mus musculus brain (hippocampus) of animals kept in standard environment and enriched environment. The RNA-seq data comprise 4 groups: 2 age groups, each w/ and w/o enriched environment. Jena Centre for Systems Biology of Ageing - JenAge (www.jenage.de) Overall design: 39 samples in 4 groups: 5 months control (10 samples), 5 months enriched environment (9 samples), 24 months control (15 samples), 24 months enriched environment (5 samples)
Project description:Production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus decreases with age; this decline may underlie age-related cognitive impairment. Here we show that continuous depletion of the neural stem cell pool, as a consequence of their division, may contribute to the age-related decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that adult hippocampal stem cells, upon exiting their quiescent state, rapidly undergo a series of asymmetric divisions to produce dividing progeny destined to become neurons and subsequently convert into mature astrocytes. Thus, the decrease in the number of neural stem cells is a division-coupled process and is directly related to their production of new neurons. We present a scheme of the neurogenesis cascade in the adult hippocampus that includes a proposed "disposable stem cell" model and accounts for the disappearance of hippocampal neural stem cells, the appearance of new astrocytes, and the age-related decline in the production of new neurons.
Project description:Granule neurons generated in the adult mammalian hippocampus synaptically integrate to facilitate cognitive function and antidepressant efficacy. Here, we investigated the role of BDNF in facilitating their maturation in vivo. We found that depletion of central BDNF in mice elicited an increase in hippocampal cell proliferation without affecting cell survival or fate specification. However, new mutant neurons failed to fully mature as indicated by their lack of calbindin, reduced dendritic differentiation and an accumulation of calretinin(+) immature neurons in the BDNF mutant dentate gyrus. Furthermore, the facilitating effects of GABA(A) receptor stimulation on neurogenesis were absent in the mutants, suggesting that defects might be due to alterations in GABA signaling. Transcriptional analysis of the mutant hippocampal neurogenic region revealed increases in markers for immature neurons and decreases in neuronal differentiation facilitators. These findings demonstrate that BDNF is required for the terminal differentiation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus.
Project description:C57BL6/J female mice were raised either in standard environment (SE) for 8 weeks after birth or were put in enriched environment (EE) at postnatal 4 weeks up to 8 weeks old. Mice were sacrificed at 8 weeks and spleen were harvested. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were sorted by FACS and CD4+ or CD8+ T were profiled using a low-input protocol adapted from single-cell RNAseq. Overall design: 21 samples were profiled: for CD8+ T Cells, n=6 in EE and n=4 in SE. For CD4+ T Cells, N=6 in EE and N=5 in SE.
Project description:Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the hippocampus produce new neurons throughout adult life. NSCs are maintained in a state of reversible quiescence and the failure to maintain the quiescent state can result in the premature depletion of the stem cell pool. The epigenetic mechanisms that maintain this quiescent state have not been identified. Using an inducible knockout mouse model, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) is essential for maintaining NSC quiescence. CHD7 inactivation in adult NSCs results in a loss of stem cell quiescence in the hippocampus, a transient increase in cell divisions, followed by a significant decline in neurogenesis. This loss of NSC quiescence is associated with the premature loss of NSCs in middle-aged mice. We find that CHD7 represses the transcription of several positive regulators of cell cycle progression and is required for full induction of the Notch target gene Hes5 in quiescent NSCs. These findings directly link CHD7 to pathways involved in NSC quiescence and identify the first chromatin-remodeling factor with a role in NSC quiescence and maintenance. As CHD7 haplo-insufficiency is associated with a range of cognitive disabilities in CHARGE syndrome, our observations may have implications for understanding the basis of these deficits.