Project description:Local adaptation is often a product of environmental variations in geographical space and has implications for biodiversity conservation. We investigated the role of latitudinal heterogeneity in climate on the organization of genetic and phenotypic variation in the dominant coastal tree Avicennia schaueriana. In a common garden experiment, samples from an equatorial region, with pronounced seasonality in precipitation, accumulated less biomass, and showed lower stomatal conductance and transpiration, narrower xylem vessels, smaller leaves and higher reflectance of long wavelengths by the stem epidermis than samples from a subtropical region, with seasonality in temperature and no dry season. Transcriptomic differences identified between trees sampled under field conditions at equatorial and subtropical sites, were enriched in functional categories such as responses to temperature, solar radiation, water deficit, photosynthesis and cell wall biosynthesis. Remarkably, the diversity based on genome-wide SNPs revealed a north-south genetic structure and signatures of selection were identified for loci associated with photosynthesis, anthocyanin accumulation and the responses to osmotic and hypoxia stresses. Our results suggest the existence of divergence in key resource-use characteristics, likely driven by seasonality in water deficit and solar radiation. These findings provide a basis for conservation plans and for predicting coastal plants responses to climate change. Overall design: mRNA profiles of leaves, stems and flowers from six adult trees under field conditions: three from an equatorial mangrove forest and three from a subtropical mangrove forest in the Atlantic coast of South America. Sequencing platform: Illumina GA Iix
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Successive vascular cambia are involved in the secondary growth of at least 200 woody species from >30 plant families. In the mangrove Avicennia these successive cambia are organized in patches, creating stems with non-concentric xylem tissue surrounded by internal phloem tissue. Little is known about radial growth and tree stem dynamics in trees with this type of anatomy. This study aims to (1) clarify the process of secondary growth of Avicennia trees by studying its patchiness; and (2) study the radial increment of Avicennia stems, both temporary and permanent, in relation to local climatic and environmental conditions. A test is made of the hypothesis that patchy radial growth and stem dynamics enable Avicennia trees to better survive conditions of extreme physiological drought. Methods Stem variations were monitored by automatic point dendrometers at four different positions around and along the stem of two Avicennia marina trees in the mangrove forest of Gazi Bay (Kenya) during 1 year. KEY RESULTS: Patchiness was found in the radial growth and shrinkage and swelling patterns of Avicennia stems. It was, however, potentially rather than systematically present, i.e. stems reacted either concentrically or patchily to environment triggers, and it was fresh water availability and not tidal inundation that affected radial increment. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the ability to develop successive cambia in a patchy way enables Avicennia trees to adapt to changes in the prevailing environmental conditions, enhancing its survival in the highly dynamic mangrove environment. Limited water could be used in a more directive way, investing all the attainable resources in only some locations of the tree stem so that at least at these locations there is enough water to, for example, overcome vessel embolisms or create new cells. As these locations change with time, the overall functioning of the tree can be maintained.
Project description:Anthropogenic activity, such as accidental oil spills, are typical sources of urban mangrove pollution that may affect mangrove bacterial communities as well as their mobile genetic elements. To evaluate remediation strategies, we followed over the time the effects of a petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium inoculated on mangrove tree Avicennia schaueriana against artificial petroleum contamination in a phytoremediation greenhouse experiment. Interestingly, despite plant protection due to the inoculation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from the total community DNA indicated that the different treatments did not significantly affect the bacterial community composition. However, while the bacterial community was rather stable, pronounced shifts were observed in the abundance of bacteria carrying plasmids. A PCR-Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated an increase in the abundance of IncP-9 catabolic plasmids. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of naphthalene dioxygenase (ndo) genes amplified from cDNA (RNA) indicated the dominance of a specific ndo gene in the inoculated petroleum amendment treatment. The petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium characterization indicated the prevalence of bacteria assigned to Pseudomonas spp., Comamonas spp. and Ochrobactrum spp. IncP-9 plasmids were detected for the first time in Comamonas sp. and Ochrobactrum spp., which is a novelty of this study.
Project description:Identifying the environmental factors that shape intraspecific genetic and phenotypic diversity of species can provide insights into the processes that generate and maintain divergence in highly diverse biomes such as the savannas of the Neotropics. Here, we sampled Qualea grandiflora, the most widely distributed tree species in the Cerrado, a large Neotropical savanna. We analyzed genetic variation with microsatellite markers in 23 populations (418 individuals) and phenotypic variation of 10 metamer traits (internode, petiole and corresponding leaf lamina) in 36 populations (744 individuals). To evaluate the role of geography, soil, climate, and wind speed in shaping the divergence of genetic and phenotypic traits among populations, we used Generalized Dissimilarity Modelling. We also used multiple regressions to further investigate the contributions of those environmental factors on leaf trait diversity. We found high genetic diversity, which was geographically structured. Geographic distance was the main factor shaping genetic divergence in Qualea grandiflora, reflecting isolation by distance. Genetic structure was more related to past climatic changes than to the current climate. We also found high metamer trait variation, which seemed largely influenced by precipitation, soil bulk density and wind speed during the period of metamer development. The high degree of metamer trait variation seems to be due to both, phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation to different environmental conditions, and may explain the success of the species in occupying all the Cerrado biome.
Project description:Mangrove tree <i>Avicenna marina</i> has great ecological significance in maintaining coastal ecosystem, but its unique potential for gene functions and genetic diversity underlying ecological adaptation remains investigation. In this study, the chloroplast genome of <i>A. marina</i> was first characterized by sequencing chloroplast DNA with Illumina technology. The <i>A. marina</i> genome was 147,909?bp in size with a typical quadripartite structure, which was deposited in GenBank under the accession number MT108381.
Project description:The present study was carried out with the following objectives: (1) to isolate the endophytic bacilli strains from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia marina, (2) to screen the potential strains for the production of adenosine deaminase, (3) to statistically optimize the factors that influence the enzyme activity in the potent strain, and (4) to identify the potent strain using 16S rRNA sequence and construct its phylogenetic tree. The bacterial strains isolated from the fresh leaves of a mangrove A. marina were assessed for adenosine deaminase activity by plating method. Optimization of reaction process was carried out using response surface methodology of central composite design. The potent strain was identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogeny. Of five endophytic strains, EMLK1 showed a significant deaminase activity over other four strains. The conditions for maximum activity of the isolated adenosine deaminase are described. The potent strain EMLK1 was identified as Lysinibacillus sp. (JQ710723) being the first report as a mangrove endophyte. Mangrove-derived endophytic bacillus strain Lysinibacillus sp. EMLK1 is proved to be a promising source for the production of adenosine deaminase and this enzyme deserves further studies for purification and its application in disease diagnosis.
Project description:The central-marginal hypothesis (CMH) posits that range margins exhibit less genetic diversity and greater inter-population genetic differentiation compared to range cores. CMH predictions are based on long-held "abundant-centre" assumptions of a decline in ecological conditions and abundances towards range margins. Although much empirical research has confirmed CMH, exceptions remain almost as common. We contend that mangroves provide a model system to test CMH that alleviates common confounding factors and may help clarify this lack of consensus. Here, we document changes in black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) population genetics with 12 nuclear microsatellite loci along three replicate coastlines in the United States (only two of three conform to underlying "abundant-centre" assumptions). We then test an implicit prediction of CMH (reduced genetic diversity may constrain adaptation at range margins) by measuring functional traits of leaves associated with cold tolerance, the climatic factor that controls these mangrove distributional limits. CMH predictions were confirmed only along the coastlines that conform to "abundant-centre" assumptions and, in contrast to theory, range margin A. germinans exhibited functional traits consistent with greater cold tolerance compared to range cores. These findings support previous accounts that CMH may not be a general rule across species and that reduced neutral genetic diversity at range margins may not be a constraint to shifts in functional trait variation along climatic gradients.
Project description:Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771.
Project description:Salinity affects growth and development of plants, but mangroves exhibit exceptional salt tolerance. With direct exposure to salinity, mangrove roots possess specific adaptations to tolerate salt stress. Therefore, studying the early effects of salt on mangrove roots can help us better understand the tolerance mechanisms. Using two-month-old greenhouse-grown seedlings of the mangrove tree Avicennia officinalis subjected to NaCl treatment, we profiled gene expression changes in the roots by RNA-sequencing. Of the 6547 genes that were differentially regulated in response to salt treatment, 1404 and 5213 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively. By comparative genomics, 93 key salt tolerance-related genes were identified of which 47 were up-regulated. Upon placing all the differentially expressed genes (DEG) in known signaling pathways, it was evident that most of the DEGs involved in ethylene and auxin signaling were up-regulated while those involved in ABA signaling were down-regulated. These results imply that ABA-independent signaling pathways also play a major role in salt tolerance of A. officinalis. Further, ethylene response factors (ERFs) were abundantly expressed upon salt treatment and the Arabidopsis mutant aterf115, a homolog of AoERF114 is characterized. Overall, our results would help in understanding the possible molecular mechanism underlying salt tolerance in plants.
Project description:Mangrove forests of a single trees species, Avicennia marina subsp. australasica are widespread in the upper North Island of New Zealand, but there is little available information on the diversity of epiphytes such as lichens within them. A survey of 200 trees from 20 mangrove sites recorded a total of 106 lichen species from 45 genera. Two of these species are considered to be 'Threatened', five 'At Risk' and 27 'Data Deficient'. Multiple regression indicated that tree diameter (DBH) and mean annual rain days positively influenced site species richness. Multidimensional scaling showed that sites from the same geographical region generally formed distinct clusters. Redundancy analysis indicated that mean annual wet days, latitude and DBH measurably influenced species composition.