Project description:BACKGROUND:Classification of pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) has traditionally relied on detecting specific virulence associated genes (VAGs) or combinations thereof. For E. coli isolated from faecal samples, the presence of specific genes associated with different intestinal pathogenic pathovars will determine their classification and further course of action. However, the E. coli genome is not a static entity, and hybrid strains are emerging that cross the pathovar definitions. Hybrid strains may show gene contents previously associated with several distinct pathovars making the correct diagnostic classification difficult. We extended the analysis of routinely submitted faecal isolates to include known virulence associated genes that are usually not examined in faecal isolates to detect the frequency of possible hybrid strains. METHODS:From September 2012 to February 2013, 168 faecal isolates of E. coli routinely submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) from clinical microbiological laboratories throughout Norway were analysed for 33 VAGs using multiplex-PCR, including factors associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains. The strains were further typed by Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA), and the phylogenetic grouping was determined. One isolate from the study was selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS) with a combination of Oxford Nanopore's MinION and Illumina's MiSeq. RESULTS:The analysis showed a surprisingly high number of strains carrying ExPEC associated VAGs and strains carrying a combination of both intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC) and ExPEC VAGs. In particular, 93.5% (101/108) of isolates classified as belonging to an IPEC pathovar additionally carried ExPEC VAGs. WGS analysis of a selected hybrid strain revealed that it could, with present classification criteria, be classified as belonging to all of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) and Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) pathovars. CONCLUSION:Hybrid ExPEC/IPEC E. coli strains were found at a very high frequency in faecal samples and were in fact the predominant species present. A sequenced hybrid isolate was confirmed to be a cross-pathovar strain possessing recognised hallmarks of several pathovars, and a genome heavily influenced by horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:We hereby present the first descriptions of human-invasive infections caused by Escherichia marmotae, a recently described species that encompasses the former <i>"</i>Escherichia cryptic clade V." We describe four cases, one acute sepsis of unknown origin, one postoperative sepsis after cholecystectomy, one spondylodiscitis, and one upper urinary tract infection. Cases were identified through unsystematic queries in a single clinical lab over 6 months. Through genome sequencing of the causative strains combined with available genomes from elsewhere, we demonstrate <i>Es. marmotae</i> to be a likely ubiquitous species containing genotypic virulence traits associated with Escherichia pathogenicity. The invasive isolates were scattered among isolates from a range of nonhuman sources in the phylogenetic analyses, thus indicating inherent virulence in multiple lineages. Pan genome analyses indicate that <i>Es. marmotae</i> has a large accessory genome and is likely to obtain ecologically advantageous traits, such as genes encoding antimicrobial resistance. Reliable identification might be possible by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), but relevant spectra are missing in commercial databases. It can be identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Escherichia marmotae could represent a relatively common human pathogen, and improved diagnostics will provide a better understanding of its clinical importance. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen found in blood cultures and urine and among the most important pathogenic species in the realm of human health. The notion that some of these isolates are not Es. coli but rather another species within the same genus may have implications for what Es. coli constitutes. We only recently have obtained methods to separate the two species, which means that possible differences in important clinical aspects, such as antimicrobial resistance rates, virulence, and phylogenetic structure, may exist. We believe that <i>Es. marmotae</i> as a common pathogen is new merely because we have not looked or bothered to distinguish between the thousands of invasive Escherichia passing through microbiological laboratories each day.
Project description:Escherichia coli KI683 was isolated from blood of a patient who developed septicemia as a complication of a urinary tract infection. Genome sequencing resulted in three contigs with a total genome size of 5,243,173?bp encoding 5,143 genes.
Project description:Transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) is a high-throughput method coupling transposon mutagenesis with short-fragment DNA sequencing. It is commonly used to identify essential genes. Single gene deletion libraries are considered the gold standard for identifying essential genes. Currently, the TraDIS method has not been benchmarked against such libraries, and therefore, it remains unclear whether the two methodologies are comparable. To address this, a high-density transposon library was constructed in Escherichia coli K-12. Essential genes predicted from sequencing of this library were compared to existing essential gene databases. To decrease false-positive identification of essential genes, statistical data analysis included corrections for both gene length and genome length. Through this analysis, new essential genes and genes previously incorrectly designated essential were identified. We show that manual analysis of TraDIS data reveals novel features that would not have been detected by statistical analysis alone. Examples include short essential regions within genes, orientation-dependent effects, and fine-resolution identification of genome and protein features. Recognition of these insertion profiles in transposon mutagenesis data sets will assist genome annotation of less well characterized genomes and provides new insights into bacterial physiology and biochemistry.IMPORTANCE Incentives to define lists of genes that are essential for bacterial survival include the identification of potential targets for antibacterial drug development, genes required for rapid growth for exploitation in biotechnology, and discovery of new biochemical pathways. To identify essential genes in Escherichia coli, we constructed a transposon mutant library of unprecedented density. Initial automated analysis of the resulting data revealed many discrepancies compared to the literature. We now report more extensive statistical analysis supported by both literature searches and detailed inspection of high-density TraDIS sequencing data for each putative essential gene for the E. coli model laboratory organism. This paper is important because it provides a better understanding of the essential genes of E. coli, reveals the limitations of relying on automated analysis alone, and provides a new standard for the analysis of TraDIS data.
Project description:Our goal is to construct an improved Escherichia coli to serve both as a better model organism and as a more useful technological tool for genome science. We developed techniques for precise genomic surgery and applied them to deleting the largest K-islands of E. coli, identified by comparative genomics as recent horizontal acquisitions to the genome. They are loaded with cryptic prophages, transposons, damaged genes, and genes of unknown function. Our method leaves no scars or markers behind and can be applied sequentially. Twelve K-islands were successfully deleted, resulting in an 8.1% reduced genome size, a 9.3% reduction of gene count, and elimination of 24 of the 44 transposable elements of E. coli. These are particularly detrimental because they can mutagenize the genome or transpose into clones being propagated for sequencing, as happened in 18 places of the draft human genome sequence. We found no change in the growth rate on minimal medium, confirming the nonessential nature of these islands. This demonstration of feasibility opens the way for constructing a maximally reduced strain, which will provide a clean background for functional genomics studies, a more efficient background for use in biotechnology applications, and a unique tool for studies of genome stability and evolution.
Project description:The udhA gene of Escherichia coli was cloned and expressed in E. coli and found to encode an enzyme with soluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase activity. The N-terminal end of the enzyme contains the fingerprint motif of a dinucleotide binding domain, not present in published E. coli genome sequences due to a sequencing error. E. coli is hereby the first organism reported to possess both a soluble and a membrane-bound pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disease prevention and control is a significant part in the ex-situ conservation of the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens), being bacterial infection is one of the most important health threats to the captive population. To date, studies about the infection caused by Escherichia coli in the red panda are scarce. This study was conducted to determine the cause of death of a captive red panda through clinical symptoms, complete blood count, biochemical analysis, pathological diagnosis and bacterial whole genome sequencing. CASE PRESENTATION:The following report describes a case of a 1.5?year old captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) that was found lethargic and anorectic. She was moved to the quarantine area for daily treatment with 50?mg of Cefpodoxime Proxetil. During the three-day treatment, she did not eat or defecate, and then died. Clinical hematology revealed the values of neutrophils, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly higher. Histological analysis demonstrated major pathological damage in the kidneys, liver and lungs, characterized by hyperemia, parenchymal cell degeneration and necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration which were predominantly neutrophilic. A bacterial strain confirmed as Escherichia coli was isolated post mortem. Whole genome sequencing of the E. coli showed the complete genome size was 4.99 Mbp. PapA, PapC, OmpA, OmpU and other virulence factors which specific to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) were found in the isolate. Among the virulence factors, P pili, type I pili and related factors of the iron uptake system were associated with nephrotoxicity. CONCLUSION:The red panda died of bacterial infection caused by an uropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. The pathogenic mechanisms of the strain are closely related to the expression of specific virulence genes.
Project description:Bacteriophages and their proteins have potential applications in biotechnology for the detection and control of bacterial diseases. Here, we describe the sequencing and genome annotations of two strictly virulent Escherichia coli bacteriophages that may be explored for biocontrol strategies and to expand the understanding of phage-host interactions.