Project description:A. baumannii was incubated with differing concentrations of omega76 (MBC=4ug/ml). Overall design: A. baumannii was incubated with differing concentrations of omega76 (MBC=4ug/ml): 0.1X, 0.25X, and 0.5X MBC. 3 treated samples (2 technical replicates each) and 1 untreated samples (2 technical replicates) were used in this study. All cultures were grown in 10 ml LB broth at 37C/180rpm for 12 hours before flash-freezing and RNA extraction.
Project description:Polymyxin B-based combinations are increasingly prescribed as a last-line option against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii It is unknown if such combinations can result in the development of nondividing persister cells in XDR A. baumannii We investigated persister development upon exposure of XDR A. baumannii to polymyxin B-based antibiotic combinations using flow cytometry. Time-kill studies (TKSs) were conducted in three nonclonal XDR A. baumannii strains with 5 log10 CFU/ml bacteria against polymyxin B alone and polymyxin B-based two-drug combinations over 24 h. At different time points, samples were obtained and enumerated by viable plating and flow cytometry. Propidium iodide and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dyes were used to differentiate between live and dead cells and between dividing and nondividing cells, respectively, at the single-cell level, and nondividing live cells were resuscitated and characterized phenotypically. Our results from viable plating showed that polymyxin B plus meropenem and polymyxin B plus rifampin were each bactericidal (>99.9% kill compared to the initial inoculum) against 2/3 XDR A. baumannii strains at 24 h. By flow cytometry, however, none of the combinations were bactericidal against XDR A. baumannii at 24 h. Further analysis using cellular dyes in flow cytometry revealed that upon exposure to polymyxin B-based combinations, XDR A. baumannii entered a viable but nondividing persister state. These bacterial cells reinitiated division upon the removal of antibiotic pressure and did not have a growth deficit compared to the parent strain. We conclude that persister cells develop in XDR A. baumannii upon exposure to polymyxin B-based combinations and that nonplating methods appear to complement viable-plating methods in describing the killing activity of polymyxin B-based combinations against XDR A. baumannii.
Project description:Gut microbiota has been reported to contribute to reduced diet-induced obesity upon cold exposure. Furthermore, gut microbiome fermentation determines the efficacy of exercise for diabetes prevention and enhances exercise performance. However, there have been no systematic examinations of changes in gut microbiome composition in relation to exercise performed under low-temperature conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of exercise performed under different conditions (room temperature, acute cold, intermittent cold, and sustained cold) in obese rats maintained on a high-fat diet at four time points during experimental trials (days 0, 1, 3, and 35), including observations on white fat browning, weight loss, cardiovascular effects, and changes in gut microbiota among treatment groups. We found that exercise under sustained cold conditions produced a remarkable shift in microbiota composition. Unexpectedly, exercise was found to reverse the alterations in gut microbiota alpha-diversity and the abundance of certain bacterial phyla observed in response to cold exposure (e.g., Proteobacteria decreased upon cold exposure but increased in response to exercise under cold conditions). Moreover, exercise under cold conditions (hereafter referred to "cold exercise") promoted a considerably higher level of white fat browning and greater weight loss and protected against the negative cardiovascular effects of cold exposure. Correlation analysis revealed that cold exercise-related changes in gut microbial communities were significantly correlated with white fat browning and cardiovascular phenotypes. These results could reveal novel mechanisms whereby additional health benefits attributable to both cold and exercise are mediated via altered gut microbes differently compared with either of them alone.
Project description:Bacterial persistence is one of the major causes of antibiotic treatment failure and the step stone for antibiotic resistance. However, the mechanism by which persisters arise has not been well understood. Maintaining a dormant state to prevent antibiotics from taking effect is believed to be the fundamental mechanistic basis, and persisters normally maintain an intact cellular structure. Here we examined the morphologies of persisters in Acinetobacter baumannii survived from the treatment by three major classes of antibiotics (i.e. ?-lactam, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone) with microcopy and found that a fraction of enlarged spherical bacteria constitutes a major sub-population of bacterial survivors from ?-lactam antibiotic treatment, whereas survivors from the treatment of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone were less changed morphologically. Further studies showed that these spherical bacteria had completely lost their cell wall structures but could survive without any osmoprotective reagent. The spherical bacteria were not the viable-but-non-culturable cells and they could revive upon the removal of ?-lactam antibiotics. Importantly, these non-walled spherical bacteria also persisted during antibiotic therapy in vivo using Galleria mellonella as the infection model. Additionally, the combinational treatment on A. baumannii by ?-lactam and membrane-targeting antibiotic significantly enhanced the killing efficacy. Our results indicate that in addition to the dormant, structure intact persisters, the non-wall spherical bacterium is another important type of persister in A. baumannii. The finding suggests that targeting the bacterial cell membrane during ?-lactam chemotherapy could enhance therapeutic efficacy on A. baumannii infection, which might also help to reduce the resistance development of A. baumannii.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study investigated the fluoroquinolone-resistant mechanism of 56 clinical cases of A baumannii infection from 23 non-tertiary hospitals, collected between 2004 and 2006. METHODS:Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and Epsilometer test. Analyses of quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) were done by sequencing. The activity of the efflux pump was measured using inhibitors. RESULTS:The sequences from selected 56 isolates were divided into seven groups (I-VII) on the basis of mutations in gyrA (S83L), parC (S80L, S80W and S84K) and gyrB (containing the novel mutations E679D, D644Y and A677V). The 27 isolates with triple mutations in gyrA, gyrB and parC (groups IV-VII) showed higher levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] of 16-256 ?g/mL) than the 26 isolates with double mutations in gyrA and parC (groups II and III, MIC of 8-64 ? g/mL; p < 0.05). Alterations in the efflux pump were observed in four isolates with the parC S80L mutation (group II) or E84K mutation (group VII), but no effect was observed in an isolate with the parC S80 W mutation (group III). CONCLUSION:These results suggest that triple mutations in clinical isolates of A baumannii contribute to the development of high levels of resistance to fluoroquinolones and that mutations in parC S80L or E84K (groups II and VII) may contribute to alterations in efflux pump activity in A baumannii.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is a major health problem. The most common infection caused by A. baumannii is hospital acquired pneumonia, and the associated mortality rate is approximately 50%. Neither in vivo nor ex vivo expression profiling has been performed at the proteomic or transcriptomic level for pneumonia caused by A. baumannii. In this study, we characterized the proteome of A. baumannii under conditions that simulate those found in the airways, to gain some insight into how A. baumannii adapts to the host and to improve knowledge about the pathogenesis and virulence of this bacterium. A clinical strain of A. baumannii was grown under different conditions: in the presence of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from infected rats, of RAW 264.7 cells to simulate conditions in the respiratory tract and in control conditions. We used iTRAQ labelling and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF to investigate how A. baumannii responds on exposure to macrophages/BALF.179 proteins showed differential expression. In both models, proteins involved in the following processes were over-expressed: (i) pathogenesis and virulence (OmpA, YjjK); (ii) cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis (MurC); (iii) energy production and conversion (acetyl-CoA hydrolase); and (iv) translation (50S ribosomal protein L9). Proteins involved in the following were under-expressed: (i) lipid metabolism (short-chain dehydrogenase); (ii) amino acid metabolism and transport (aspartate aminotransferase); (iii) unknown function (DNA-binding protein); and (iv) inorganic ion transport and metabolism (hydroperoxidase).We observed alterations in cell wall synthesis and identified 2 upregulated virulence-associated proteins with >15 peptides/protein in both ex vivo models (OmpA and YjjK), suggesting that these proteins are fundamental for pathogenesis and virulence in the airways. This study is the first comprehensive overview of the ex vivo proteome of A. baumannii and is an important step towards identification of diagnostic biomarkers, novel drug targets and potential vaccine candidates in the fight against pneumonia caused by A. baumannii.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic infectious agent that affects primarily immunocompromised individuals. A. baumannii is highly prevalent in hospital settings being commonly associated with nosocomial transmission and drug resistance. Here, we report the identification and genetic characterization of A. baumannii strains among patients in a tertiary level hospital in Mexico. Whole genome sequencing analysis was performed to establish their genetic relationship and drug resistance mutations profile. Ten genetically different, extensively drug resistant strains were identified circulating among seven wards. The genetic profiles showed resistance primarily against aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics. Importantly, no mutants conferring resistance to colistin were observed. The results highlight the importance of implementing robust classification schemes for advanced genetic characterization of A. baumannii clinical isolates and simultaneous detection of drug resistance markers for adequate patient's management in clinical settings.
Project description:The prevalence of aminoglycoside resistant enzymes has previously been reported and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase among Acinetobacter baumannii. To track the risk of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of carbapenemases in high-level aminoglycoside resistant A. baumannii over two years. A total of 118 strains of A. baumannii were consecutively collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China. These isolates were investigated on the genetic basis of their resistance to aminoglycosides. The results showed that 75 (63.56%) isolates were high-level resistant to aminoglycosides, including gentamicin and amikacin (minimum inhibitory concentration, ?256 µg/ml). Aminoglycoside-resistant genes ant(2?)-Ia, aac(6')-Ib, aph(3')-Ia, aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, rmtF, rmtG, rmtH and npmA, and carbapenem-resistant genes blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaSIM, blaIMP, blaNDM-1 and blaKPC, were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The positive rate of ant(2?)-Ia, aac(6')-Ib, aph(3')-Ia, aac(3)-Ia and aac(3)-IIa was 66.95, 69.49, 42.37, 39.83 and 14.41%, respectively. armA was present in 72.0% (54/75) of A. baumannii isolates with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. The remaining nine 16S ribosomal RNA methlyase genes (rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, rmtF, rmtG, rmtH and npmA) and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene aac(6')-Ib-cr were not detected. Among the 54 armA-positive isolates, the prevalence of the carbapenem resistant blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 genes was 79.63 and 100%, respectively. armA, ant(2?)-Ia and aac(6')-Ib were positive in 43 isolates. The results of multilocus sequence typing revealed 31 sequence types (STs) in all clinical strains. Among these STs, the high-level aminoglycoside-resistant A. baumannii ST92, which mostly harbored blaOXA-23, was the predominant clone (29/75). In conclusion, A. baumannii harboring carbapenemases and aminoglycoside-resistant enzymes are extremely prevalent in western China, emphasizing the need to adopt surveillance programs to solve the therapeutic challenges that this presents.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is well adapted to the hospital environment, where infections caused by this organism are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance have been described extensively, yet the mechanisms by which A. baumannii regulates antibiotic resistance have not been defined. We sought to identify signals encountered within the hospital setting or human host that alter the resistance phenotype of A. baumannii. In this regard, we have identified NaCl as being an important signal that induces significant tolerance to aminoglycosides, carbapenems, quinolones, and colistin upon the culturing of A. baumannii cells in physiological NaCl concentrations. Proteomic analyses of A. baumannii culture supernatants revealed the release of outer membrane proteins in high NaCl, including two porins (CarO and a 33- to 36-kDa protein) whose loss or inactivation is associated with antibiotic resistance. To determine if NaCl affected expression at the transcriptional level, the transcriptional response to NaCl was determined by microarray analyses. These analyses highlighted 18 genes encoding putative efflux transporters that are significantly upregulated in response to NaCl. Consistent with this, the effect of NaCl on the tolerance to levofloxacin and amikacin was significantly reduced upon the treatment of A. baumannii with an efflux pump inhibitor. The effect of physiological concentrations of NaCl on colistin resistance was conserved in a panel of multidrug-resistant isolates of A. baumannii, underscoring the clinical significance of these observations. Taken together, these data demonstrate that A. baumannii sets in motion a global regulatory cascade in response to physiological NaCl concentrations, resulting in broad-spectrum tolerance to antibiotics.