Project description:The gut microbiota is crucial for metabolic homeostasis, immunity, growth and overall health, and it is recognized that early-life microbiota acquisition is a pivotal event for later-life health. Recent studies show that gut microbiota diversity and functional activity are synchronized with the host circadian rhythms in healthy individuals, and circadian disruption elicits dysbiosis in mammalian models. However, no studies have determined the associations between circadian disruption in early life, microbiota colonization, and the consequences for microbiota structure in birds. Chickens, as a major source of protein around the world, are one of the most important agricultural species, and their gut and metabolic health are significant concerns. The poultry industry routinely employs extended photoperiods (>18 h light) as a management tool, and their impacts on the chicken circadian, its role in gut microbiota acquisition in early life (first 3 weeks of life), and consequences for later life microbiota structure remain unknown. In this study, the objectives were to (a) characterize circadian activity under two different light regimes in layer chicken (12/12 h' Light/Dark (LD) and 23/1 h LD), (b) characterize gut microbiota acquisition and composition in the first 4 weeks of life, (c) determine if gut microbiota oscillate in synchrony with the host circadian rhythm, and (d) to determine if fecal microbiota is representative of cecal microbiota in early life. Expression of clock genes (clock, bmal1, and per2) was assayed, and fecal and cecal microbiotas were characterized using 16S rRNA gene amplicon analyses from birds raised under two photoperiod treatments. Chickens raised under 12/12 LD photoperiods exhibited rhythmic clock gene activity, which was absent in birds raised under the extended (23/1 LD) photoperiod. There was differential microbiota acquisition under different photoperiod regimes in newly hatched chicks. Gut microbiota members showed a similar oscillating pattern as the host, but this association was not as strong as found in mammals. Finally, the fecal microbiota was found to be not representative of cecal microbiota membership and structure in young birds. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate the use of photoperiods to modulate microbiota acquisition in newly hatched chicks, and show their potential as a tool to promote the colonization of beneficial microorganisms.
Project description:The proper development of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is critical for newborn ruminants. This microbiota is susceptible to modification by diverse external factors (such as diet) that can lead to long-lasting results when occurring in young ruminants. Dietary supplementation with prebiotics, ingredients nondigestible and nonabsorbable by the host that stimulate the growth of beneficial GIT bacteria, has been applied worldwide as a potential approach in order to improve ruminant health and production yields. However, how prebiotics affect the GIT microbiota during ruminants' early life is still poorly understood. We investigated the effect of milk supplementation with a combination of two well-known prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from sugar beet and garlic residues (all together named as "additive"), exerted on preweaned lamb growth and the composition of their fecal microbiota, by using 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing. The results showed a significant increase in the mean daily weight gain of lambs fed with the additive. Lamb fecal microbiota was also influenced by the additive intake, as additive-diet lambs showed lower bacterial diversity and were significantly more abundant in Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Veillonella. These bacteria have been previously reported to confer beneficial properties to the ruminant, including promotion of growth and health status, and our results showed that they were strongly linked to the additive intake and the increased weight gain of lambs. This study points out the combination of FOS from sugar beet and garlic residues as a potential prebiotic to be used in young ruminants' nutrition in order to improve production yields.
Project description:Studies have suggested that demographic and lifestyle factors could shape the composition of fecal microbiota in early life. This study evaluated infant stool microbiota signatures in two Asian populations, Singapore (n = 42) and Indonesia (n = 32) with contrasting socioeconomic development, and examined the putative influences of demographic factors on these human fecal associated bacterial signatures.Longitudinal analysis showed associations of geographical origin with Clostridium leptum, Atopobium and Bifidobacterium groups. Mode of delivery had the largest effect on stool microbiota signatures influencing the abundance of four bacterial groups. Significantly higher abundance of bacterial members belonging to the Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium groups, but lower abundance of Lactobacilli-Enterococci group members, were observed in vaginal delivered compared to caesarean delivered infants. Demographic factors influencing the structure of infants stool microbiota during the first year of life included breastfeeding, age of weaning, sibship size and exposure to antibiotics.Differences in stool microbiota signatures were observed in relation to various demographic factors. These features may confound studies relating to the association of the structure of fecal microbiota and the predisposition to human modern disease.
Project description:Optimization of antimicrobial use in swine management systems requires full understanding of antimicrobial-induced changes on the developmental dynamics of gut microbiota and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of early life antimicrobial intervention on fecal microbiota development, and prevalence of selected ARGs (ermB, tetO, tetW, tetC, sulI, sulII, and blaC TX-M) in neonatal piglets. A total of 48 litters were randomly allocated into one of six treatment groups soon after birth. Treatments were as follows: control (CONT), ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA), ceftiofur hydrochloride (CHC), oxytetracycline (OTC), procaine penicillin G (PPG), and tulathromycin (TUL). Fecal swabs were collected from piglets at days 0 (prior to treatment), 5, 10, 15, and 20 post treatment. Sequencing analysis of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and selected ARGs were performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. Our results showed that, while early life antimicrobial prophylaxis had no effect on individual weight gain, or mortality, it was associated with minor shifts in the composition of fecal microbiota and noticeable changes in the abundance of selected ARGs. Unifrac distance metrics revealed that the microbial communities of the piglets that received different treatments (CCFA, CHC, OTC, PPG, and TUL) did not cluster distinctly from CONT piglets. Compared to CONT group, PPG-treated piglets exhibited a significant increase in the relative abundance of ermB and tetW at day 20 of life. Tulathromycin treatment also resulted in a significant increase in the abundance of tetW at days 10 and 20, and ermB at day 20. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the shifts in fecal microbiota structure caused by perinatal antimicrobial intervention are modest and limited to particular groups of microbial taxa. However, early life PPG and TUL intervention could promote the selection of ARGs in herds. While additional investigations are required to explore the consistency of these findings across larger populations, these results could open the door to new perspectives on the utility of early life antimicrobial administration to healthy neonates in swine management systems.
Project description:Development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is influenced by non-genetic factors, such as optimal microbiome development during early life that "programs" the immune system. Exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against the development of T1D, likely via bioactive components. Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS) are microbiota modulators, known to regulate immune responses directly. Here we show that early life provision (only for a period of six weeks) of 1% authentic HMOS (consisting of both long-chain, as well as short-chain structures), delayed and suppressed T1D development in non-obese diabetic mice and reduced development of severe pancreatic insulitis in later life. These protective effects were associated with i) beneficial alterations in fecal microbiota composition, ii) anti-inflammatory microbiota-generating metabolite (i.e. short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)) changes in fecal, as well as cecum content, and iii) induction of anti-diabetogenic cytokine profiles. Moreover, in vitro HMOS combined with SCFAs induced development of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs), priming of functional regulatory T cells, which support the protective effects detected in vivo. In conclusion, HMOS present in human milk are therefore thought to be vital in the protection of children at risk for T1D, supporting immune and gut microbiota development in early life.
Project description:Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples. We found that oxygen exposure degraded fecal bacterial communities, whereas freeze-thaw cycles and lag time between donor defecation and transplant preparation had much smaller effects. Notably, the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii-an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium whose absence is linked to inflammatory bowel disease-decreased with oxygen exposure. Our results indicate that some current practices for preparing microbiota transplant material adversely affect living fecal microbial content and highlight PMA-seq as a valuable tool to inform best practices and evaluate the suitability of clinical fecal material.
Project description:Supplementation with members of the early-life microbiota as "probiotics" is increasingly used in attempts to beneficially manipulate the preterm infant gut microbiota. We performed a large observational longitudinal study comprising two preterm groups: 101 infants orally supplemented with <i>Bifidobacterium</i> and <i>Lactobacillus</i> (Bif/Lacto) and 133 infants non-supplemented (control) matched by age, sex, and delivery method. 16S rRNA gene profiling on fecal samples (n = 592) showed a predominance of <i>Bifidobacterium</i> and a lower abundance of pathobionts in the Bif/Lacto group. Metabolomic analysis showed higher fecal acetate and lactate and a lower fecal pH in the Bif/Lacto group compared to the control group. Fecal acetate positively correlated with relative abundance of <i>Bifidobacterium,</i> consistent with the ability of the supplemented <i>Bifidobacterium</i> strain to metabolize human milk oligosaccharides into acetate. This study demonstrates that microbiota supplementation is associated with a <i>Bifidobacterium</i>-dominated preterm microbiota and gastrointestinal environment more closely resembling that of full-term infants.