Project description:Eggerthella lenta (Eggerth 1935) Wade et al. 1999, emended Würdemann et al. 2009 is the type species of the genus Eggerthella, which belongs to the actinobacterial family Coriobacteriaceae. E. lenta is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating pathogenic bacterium that can cause severe bacteremia. The strain described in this study has been isolated from a rectal tumor in 1935. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the genus Eggerthella, and the 3,632,260 bp long single replicon genome with its 3123 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:Strains of Eggerthella lenta are capable of oxidation-reduction reactions capable of oxidizing and epimerizing bile acid hydroxyl groups. Several genes encoding these enzymes, known as hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) have yet to be identified. It is also uncertain whether the products of E. lenta bile acid metabolism are further metabolized by other members of the gut microbiota. We characterized a novel human fecal isolate identified as E. lenta strain C592. The complete genome of E. lenta strain C592 was sequenced and comparative genomics with the type strain (DSM 2243) revealed high conservation, but some notable differences. E. lenta strain C592 falls into group III, possessing 3α, 3β, 7α, and 12α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) activity, as determined by mass spectrometry of thin layer chromatography (TLC) separated metabolites of primary and secondary bile acids. Incubation of E. lenta oxo-bile acid and iso-bile acid metabolites with whole-cells of the high-activity bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacterium, Clostridium scindens VPI 12708, resulted in minimal conversion of oxo-derivatives to lithocholic acid (LCA). Further, Iso-chenodeoxycholic acid (iso-CDCA; 3β,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) was not metabolized by C. scindens. We then located a gene encoding a novel 12α-HSDH in E. lenta DSM 2243, also encoded by strain C592, and the recombinant purified enzyme was characterized and substrate-specificity determined. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding an Rnf complex (rnfABCDEG), an energy conserving hydrogenase (echABCDEF) complex, as well as what appears to be a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Our prediction that by changing the gas atmosphere from nitrogen to hydrogen, bile acid oxidation would be inhibited, was confirmed. These results suggest that E. lenta is an important bile acid metabolizing gut microbe and that the gas atmosphere may be an important and overlooked regulator of bile acid metabolism in the gut.
Project description:Anaerobic gram-positive bacilli can occasionally be implicated in infections but are difficult to identify in culture by conventional biochemical methods. We report a case of liver abscesses caused by Eggerthella lenta, identified via 16S rRNA sequencing in a previously healthy patient, successfully treated with percutaneous drainage and ertapenem.
Project description:Despite numerous examples of the effects of the human gastrointestinal microbiome on drug efficacy and toxicity, there is often an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we dissect the inactivation of the cardiac drug digoxin by the gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta. Transcriptional profiling, comparative genomics, and culture-based assays revealed a cytochrome-encoding operon up-regulated by digoxin, inhibited by arginine, absent in nonmetabolizing E. lenta strains, and predictive of digoxin inactivation by the human gut microbiome. Pharmacokinetic studies using gnotobiotic mice revealed that dietary protein reduces the in vivo microbial metabolism of digoxin, with significant changes to drug concentration in the serum and urine. These results emphasize the importance of viewing pharmacology from the perspective of both our human and microbial genomes.
Project description:Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequences of 13 Eggerthellaceae strains isolated from fecal samples from two healthy human volunteers in Karlsruhe, Germany, i.e., Adlercreutzia equolifaciens ResAG-91, Eggerthella lenta MRI-F 36, MRI-F 37, MRI-F 40, ResAG-49, ResAG-88, ResAG-121, and ResAG-145, and Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens ResAG-5, ResAG-26, ResAG-43, ResAG-50, and ResAG-59.
Project description:Plant-derived lignans, consumed daily by most individuals, are thought to protect against cancer and other diseases1; however, their bioactivity requires gut bacterial conversion to enterolignans2. Here, we dissect a four-species bacterial consortium sufficient for all five reactions in this pathway. A single enzyme (benzyl ether reductase, encoded by the gene ber) was sufficient for the first two biotransformations, variable between strains of Eggerthella lenta, critical for enterolignan production in gnotobiotic mice and unique to Coriobacteriia. Transcriptional profiling (RNA sequencing) independently identified ber and genomic loci upregulated by each of the remaining substrates. Despite their low abundance in gut microbiomes and restricted phylogenetic range, all of the identified genes were detectable in the distal gut microbiomes of most individuals living in northern California. Together, these results emphasize the importance of considering strain-level variations and bacterial co-occurrence to gain a mechanistic understanding of the bioactivation of plant secondary metabolites by the human gut microbiome.
Project description:Eggerthella and Slackia spp. are gut associated bacteria that have been suggested to play roles in host lipid and xenobiotic metabolism. A quantitative PCR method for the selective enumeration of bacteria belonging to either the genus Eggerthella or Slackia was developed in order to establish the numbers of these bacteria occurring in human feces. The primers developed for selective amplification of these genera were tested first in conventional PCR to test for their specificity. Representative species of Eggerthella and Slackia, as well as closely related genera of the Coriobacteriia, were included in the investigation. The selected primers were shown to be capable of specific amplification of species of the genera Eggerthella and Slackia, but not all species of the genera may be amplified by the respective primers. Their use in qPCR experiments to assess the levels of Slackia equolifaciens and Eggerthella lenta in the feces of 19 human volunteers showed they occurred at mean counts of 7 × 10(5) and 3.1 × 10(5) CFU/g for Eggerthella spp. and Slackia spp., respectively. Electron microscopy investigations showed that while E. lenta cells exhibited slender and very regular shaped rods, Slackia cells showed a remarkably pleomorphic phenotype. Both species did not appear to have fimbriae or pili. Some S. equolifaciens cells showed a characteristic "ribbon" of presumably extracellular material around the cells, particularly at the areas of cell division. The two species also differed markedly in their adhesion behavior to Caco-2 cells in cell culture, as E. lenta DSMZ 15644 showed a high adhesion capacity of 74.2% adherence of the bacterial cells added to Caco-2 cells, while S. equolifaciens DSM 24851(T) on the other hand showed only low adhesion capability, as 6.1% of bacterial cells remained bound. Speculatively, this may imply that the ecological compartments where these bacteria reside in the gut may be different, i.e., E. lenta may be associated more with the gut wall, while Slackia may be free living in the lumen.
Project description:Eggerthella timonensis strain Marseille-P3135 is a new bacterial species, isolated from the stool sample of a healthy 8-year-old pygmy female. This strain (LT598568) showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 96.95% with its phylogenetically closest species with standing in nomenclature Eggerthella lenta strain DSM 2243 (AF292375). This bacterium is a nonspore forming, Gram-positive, nonmotile rod with catalase but no oxidase activity. Its genome is 3,916,897 bp long with 65.17 mol% of G + C content. Of the 3,371 predicted genes, 57 were RNAs and 3,314 were protein-coding genes. Here, we report the main phenotypic, biochemical, and genotypic characteristics of E. timonensis strain Marseille-P3135 (=CSUR P3135, =CCUG 70327); ti.mo.nen'sis, N.L. masc. adj., with timonensis referring to La Timone, which is the name of the hospital in Marseille (France) where this work was performed). Strain is a nonmotile Gram-positive rod, unable to sporulate, oxidase negative, and catalase positive. It grows under anaerobic conditions between 25°C and 42°C but optimally at 37°C.
Project description:The trillions of microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract are an underexplored aspect of pharmacology. Despite numerous examples of microbial effects on drug efficacy and toxicity, there is often an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we dissect the inactivation of the commonly prescribed cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by Eggerthella lenta. Whole genome transcriptional profiling, comparative genomics, and culture-based assays revealed a cytochrome-encoding operon up-regulated by digoxin, absent in non-metabolizing E. lenta strains, and predictive of the efficiency of digoxin inactivation by the human gut microbiome. Digoxin inactivation was further enhanced by microbial interactions and inhibited by arginine. Pharmacokinetic studies using gnotobiotic mice revealed that increasing dietary protein reduces the in vivo metabolism of digoxin by E. lenta, with significant changes to drug concentration in the urine and serum. These results emphasize the importance of viewing pharmacology from the perspective of both our human and microbial genomes. RNA-Seq analysis of Eggerthella lenta cultured with or without digoxin.