Project description:Background:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral pneumonia and bronchiolitis, especially in younger children. The burden of RSV infection in adults, particularly in the older age group, is increasingly recognised. However, RSV disease burden and molecular epidemiology in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) has not been reviewed systematically. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the epidemiological aspects of RSV (incidence, prevalence, seasonality and hospitalisation status) and the associated molecular data in the WPRO countries. Methods:A systematic search was conducted in international literature databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science) to identify RSV-related publications from January 2000 to October 2017 in the WPR countries. Results:A total of 196 studies from 15 WPR countries were included. The positivity rate for RSV among respiratory tract infection patients was 16.73% (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?15.12%-18.4%). The RSV-positive cases were mostly found in hospitalised compared with outpatients (18.28% vs 11.54%, P?<?0.001), and children compared with adults (20.72% vs 1.87%, P?<?0.001). The seasonality of RSV in the WPR countries follows the latitude, with the peak of RSV season occurring in the winter in temperate countries, and during the rainy season in tropical countries. The molecular epidemiology pattern of RSV in WPR countries was similar to the global pattern, with NA1 (RSV A) and BA (RSV B) being the predominant genotypes. Conclusions:The available data on RSV are limited in several countries within the WPR, with most data focusing on children and hospitalised patients. Further studies and surveillance, incorporating laboratory testing, are needed to determine the burden of RSV infection in the WPR countries.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children. RSV is also a major viral pathogen causing severe lung disease in the adult population, particularly among the elderly. We conducted a review of adult RSV studies published from January 1970 to February 2017 to determine the burden of disease among adults worldwide. There were no restrictions on health care setting or definition of RSV infection. A total of 1530 published studies were identified, 95 of which were included in this review. The incidence rates of hospitalised RSV acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in adults >65 years old ranged from 7.3 to 13.0/105 population in Africa and Asia and from 190 to 254/105 population in the USA. Higher incidence rates (195-1790/105 population) were observed in adults ?50 years old for outpatient or emergency visits in the USA. Of all ARI patients, RSV accounted for 1-10% in adults and 2-14% in patients with chronic diseases or transplantation. Given the limitations in the existing data, significant efforts should be made to generate evidence on the burden of RSV infections in adults and to estimate the potential impact of future preventive interventions.
Project description:Children and adults residing in densely populated urban centers around the world are at risk of seasonal influenza-like illness caused by respiratory viruses such as influenza virus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In a large metropolitan of Thailand's capital city Bangkok, most respiratory infections are rarely confirmed by molecular diagnostics. We therefore examined the frequency of RSV, hMPV, and influenza virus in 8,842 patients who presented influenza-like illness and sought medical care at a large hospital in Bangkok between 2016 and 2017. Using a multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 30.5% (2,699/8,842) of nasopharyngeal (NP) swab samples tested positive for one or more of these viruses. Influenza virus comprised 17.3% (1,528/8,842), of which the majority were influenza A/H3N2. Such infection was most prevalent among adults and the elderly. RSV was identified in 11.4% (1,011/8,842) and were mostly ON1 and BA9 genotypes. Of the hMPV-positive samples (3.6%, 318/8,842), genotypes A2, B1, and B2 were detected. A small number of individuals experienced co-infections (1.8%, 155/8,842), most commonly between RSV and influenza A/H3N2. RSV and hMPV co-infections were also found, but mainly in young children. Viral respiratory tract infection peaked locally in the rainy season (June to September). These findings support the utility of rapid nucleic acid testing of RSV, hMPV, and influenza virus in patients with ILI.
Project description:Influenza is an infectious disease that is a threat to both children and adults. The most effective way to prevent infections among children is seasonal vaccination in every epidemic season, which is recommended from the age of 6 months onward. This study is a report of the prevalence of influenza infection in the population of children up to the age of 14 years and of the type of influenza virus involved during the 2017/18 epidemic season in Poland. We found that influenza A and B viruses co-dominated in the season. Among the influenza A viruses, A/H1N1/ pdm09 subtype was a more frequent source of infection than A/H3N2/ subtype. In addition, the prevalence of infection was re-analyzed in children stratified into the age groups of 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years old. We found a relation between the age of a child and the type of influenza virus causing infection. The youngest children under 4 years were the most vulnerable to both influenza and influenza-like infections; the former caused mostly by influenza A and the latter by RSV. In contradistinction, influenza B dominated in the oldest children aged 10-14 and RSV infections were not present in this age group. The characteristics of influenza viruses may however vary on the seasonal basis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality since it is a predominant viral agent causing respiratory tract infections in infants, young children and the elderly. Considering the availability of the RSV vaccines in the coming years, molecular understanding in RSV is necessary. OBJECTIVE:The objective of the present study was to describe RSV epidemiology and genotype variability in Portugal during the 2014/15-2017/18 period. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Epidemiological data and RSV-positive samples from patients with a respiratory infection were collected through the non-sentinel and sentinel influenza surveillance system (ISS). RSV detection, subtyping in A and B, and sequencing of the second hypervariable region (HVR2) of G gene were performed by molecular methods. Phylogenetic trees were generated using the Neighbor-Joining method and p-distance model on MEGA 7.0. RESULTS:RSV prevalence varied between the sentinel (2.5%, 97/3891) and the non-sentinel ISS (20.7%, 3138/16779), being higher (P?<?0.0001) among children aged <5 years. Bronchiolitis (62.9%, 183/291) and influenza-like illness (24.6%, 14/57) were associated (P?<?0.0001) with RSV laboratory confirmation among children aged <6 months and adults ?65 years, respectively. The HVR2 was sequenced for 562 samples. RSV-A (46.4%, 261/562) and RSV-B (53.6%, 301/562) strains clustered mainly to ON1 (89.2%, 233/261) and BA9 (92%, 277/301) genotypes, respectively, although NA1 and BA10 were also present until 2015/2016. CONCLUSION:The sequence and phylogenetic analysis reflected the relatively high diversity of Portuguese RSV strains. BA9 and ON1 genotypes, which have been circulating in Portugal since 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 respectively, predominated during the whole study period.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreaks in inpatient settings are associated with poor outcomes in cancer patients. The use of molecular epidemiology to document RSV transmission in the outpatient setting has not been well described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2 nosocomial outbreaks of RSV at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Subjects included patients seen at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance with RSV detected in 2 outbreaks in 2007-2008 and 2012 and all employees with respiratory viruses detected in the 2007-2008 outbreak. A subset of samples was sequenced using semi-nested PCR targeting the RSV attachment glycoprotein coding region. Fifty-one cases of RSV were identified in 2007-2008. Clustering of identical viral strains was detected in 10 of 15 patients (67%) with RSV sequenced from 2007 to 2008. As part of a multimodal infection control strategy implemented as a response to the outbreak, symptomatic employees had nasal washes collected. Of 254 employee samples, 91 (34%) tested positive for a respiratory virus, including 14 with RSV. In another RSV outbreak in 2012, 24 cases of RSV were identified; 9 of 10 patients (90%) had the same viral strain, and 1 (10%) had another viral strain. We document spread of clonal strains within an outpatient cancer care setting. Infection control interventions should be implemented in outpatient, as well as inpatient, settings to reduce person-to-person transmission and limit progression of RSV outbreaks.
Project description:Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the major cause of pneumonia among infants. Here we elucidated the antibody repertoire following primary RSV infection and traced its evolution through adolescence and adulthood. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDL) expressing linear and conformational epitopes in the RSV fusion protein (F) and attachment protein (G) were used for unbiased epitope profiling of infant sera prior to and following RSV infection. F-GFPDL analyses demonstrated modest changes in the anti-F epitope repertoires post-RSV infection, while G-GFPDL analyses revealed 100-fold increase in number of bound phages. The G-reactive epitopes spanned the N- and C-terminus of the G ectodomain, along with increased reactivity to the central conserved domain (CCD). Panels of F and G antigenic sites were synthesized to evaluate sera from young children (<2 yr), adolescents (14-18 yr) and adults (30-45 yr) in SPR real-time kinetics assays. A steady increase in RSV-F epitope repertoires from young children to adults was observed using peptides and F proteins. Importantly, several novel epitopes were identified in pre-fusion F and an immunodominant epitope in the F-p27. In all age groups, antibody binding to pre-fusion F was 2-3 folds higher than to post-fusion form. For RSV-G, antibody responses were high following early RSV infection in children, but declined significantly in adults, using either G proteins or peptides. This study identified unlinked evolution of anti-F and anti G responses and supportive evidence for immune pressure driven evolution of RSV-G. These findings could help development of effective countermeasures including vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of illness in adults; however, data on RSV disease and economic burden in this age group remain limited. We aimed to provide comprehensive estimates of RSV disease burden among adults aged ?18 years. METHODS:During 2012-2015, population-based, active surveillance of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalizations enabled estimation of the seasonal incidence of RSV hospitalizations and direct health costs in adults aged ?18 years in Auckland, New Zealand. RESULTS:Of 4,600 ARI hospitalizations tested for RSV, 348 (7.6%) were RSV positive. The median (interquartile range) length of hospital stay for RSV positive patients was 4 (2-6) days. The seasonal incidence rate (IR) of RSV hospitalizations, corrected for non-testing, was 23.6 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 21.0-26.1) per 100,000 adults aged ?18 years. Hospitalization risk increased with age with the highest incidence among adults aged ?80 years (IR 190.8 per 100,000, 95% CI 137.6-244.0). Being of M?ori or Pacific ethnicity or living in a neighborhood with low socioeconomic status (SES) were independently associated with increased RSV hospitalization rates. We estimate RSV-associated hospitalizations among adults aged ?18 years to cost on average NZD $4,758 per event. CONCLUSIONS:RSV infection is associated with considerable disease and economic cost in adults. RSV disproportionally affects adult sub-groups defined by age, ethnicity, and neighborhood SES. An effective RSV vaccine or RSV treatment may offer benefits for older adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major cause of hospitalization in young children in Canada, despite routine immunoprophylaxis in those with medical risk factors. We aimed to determine if cold temperatures are associated with RSV hospitalization. METHODS:We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of children in Ontario, Canada, using health administrative data. We compared children hospitalized for RSV between September 1, 2011 and August 31, 2012 to age and sex matched controls. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify associations between minimum daily temperature and RSV hospitalizations with adjustment for sociodemographic and environmental factors. RESULTS:We identified 1670 children with RSV hospitalizations during the study period and 6680 matched controls. Warmer temperatures (OR?=?0.94, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.95) were associated with lower odds of RSV hospitalization. Southern ecozone (OR?=?1.6, 95%CI: 1.2, 2.1), increased ozone concentration (OR?=?1.03, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.06) and living in a lower income neighbourhood (OR?=?1.3, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.5) significantly increased the odds of RSV hospitalization, as did living in a household with a larger number of siblings in a sub-cohort of children (OR?=?1.34, 95%CI: 1.26, 1.41). CONCLUSIONS:In Ontario, the likelihood of having an RSV hospitalization is associated with colder temperature exposures and socioeconomic factors.
Project description:Homelessness has not previously been identified as a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We conducted an observational study at an urban safety-net hospital in Washington, USA, during 2012-2017. Hospitalized adults with RSV were more likely to be homeless, and several clinical outcome measures were worse with RSV than with influenza.