Project description:The aim of this work was to analyse the response of <i>Rosa rubiginosa</i> to salinity induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). Besides salt accumulation and pH changes, other parameters were investigated including photosynthetic activity, leaf water content, the dynamics of necrosis and chlorosis appearance and leaf drying. The study was complemented with microscopic analysis of changes in leaf anatomy. <i>R. rubiginosa</i> was more sensitive to the salinity induced by calcium chloride than by sodium chloride. Plant response to salinity differed depending of the salt concentration. These differences were manifested by higher dynamics of necrosis and chlorosis appearance and leaf drying. CaCl<sub>2</sub> showed greater inhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus and photosynthetic activity. Treatment with CaCl<sub>2</sub> caused more visible deformation of palisade cells, reduction in their density and overall reduction in leaf thickness. The study demonstrated higher accumulation of CaCl<sub>2</sub> in the soil, and thus greater limitations in water availability resulting in reduced leaf water content and quicker drying of leaves as compared with NaCl-treated plants.
Project description:Tortoise beetles (Cassida and related genera) are a large cosmopolitan group that includes several pests of agricultural crops and natural enemies of weeds but their biology and ecology remain poorly known. Using a set of environmental chambers, we address simultaneous effects of temperature and photoperiod on immature development and adult body mass in two European species, C. rubiginosa and C. stigmatica. Consistent with its broader distribution range, the former species is less susceptible to low rearing temperatures, develops faster and has a larger body mass than the latter. However, C. rubiginosa seems to be less adapted to late-season conditions as a short-day photoperiod accelerates its immature development to a lesser extent than it does in C. stigmatica, which nevertheless results in greater larval mortality and slightly but significantly smaller adults. By contrast, in C. stigmatica, which is more likely to encounter late-season conditions due to its slower life cycle, short-day acceleration of development is achieved at no cost to survivorship and final body mass. The experiment with C. stigmatica was repeated during two consecutive years with different methods and the main results proved to be well reproducible. In addition, laboratory results for C. rubiginosa agree with field data from literature.