Project description:<i>Tetrahymena rostrata</i> is a ciliated protist which can parasitize the gray field slug, <i>Deroceras reticulatum.</i> Here, we report the sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mt genome) of a strain of <i>T. rostrata</i> that was isolated from the egg of <i>D. reticulatum.</i> Whole cell genomic DNA was sequenced using Illumina<sup>®</sup> MiSeq and the mitochondrial DNA sequence reads were extracted and assembled. The resulting 47,235 bp assembly contained rRNAs, tRNAs, and 45 protein coding DNA sequences of which 21 encoded proteins of unknown function. Phylogenetic analysis showed <i>T. rostrata</i> clustered with <i>Tetrahymena thermophila</i>, <i>Tetrahymena pigmentosa</i>, <i>Tetrahymena pyriformis</i>, <i>Tetrahymena paravorax</i>, and <i>Tetrahymena malaccensis.</i>
Project description:Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A. caulinodans proliferation was not affected by blue light irradiation, bacterial survival was decreased. Therefore, blue light appears to impose different responses depending on the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.
Project description:Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 is a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium which can induce nitrogen-fixing nodules both on the root and the stem of its legume host Sesbania rostrata This bacterium, which is an obligate aerobe that moves by means of a polar flagellum, possesses a single chemotaxis signal transduction pathway. The objective of this work was to examine the role that chemotaxis and aerotaxis play in the lifestyle of the bacterium in free-living and symbiotic conditions. In bacterial chemotaxis, chemoreceptors sense environmental changes and transmit this information to the chemotactic machinery to guide motile bacteria to preferred niches. Here, we characterized a chemoreceptor of A. caulinodans containing an N-terminal PAS domain, named IcpB. IcpB is a soluble heme-binding protein that localized at the cell poles. An icpB mutant strain was impaired in sensing oxygen gradients and in chemotaxis response to organic acids. Compared to the wild-type strain, the icpB mutant strain was also affected in the production of extracellular polysaccharides and impaired in flocculation. When inoculated alone, the icpB mutant induced nodules on S. rostrata, but the nodules formed were smaller and had reduced N2-fixing activity. The icpB mutant failed to nodulate its host when inoculated competitively with the wild-type strain. Together, the results identify chemotaxis and sensing of oxygen by IcpB as key regulators of the A. caulinodans-S. rostrata symbiosis.Bacterial chemotaxis has been implicated in the establishment of various plant-microbe associations, including that of rhizobial symbionts with their legume host. The exact signal(s) detected by the motile bacteria that guide them to their plant hosts remain poorly characterized. Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 is a diazotroph that is a motile and chemotactic rhizobial symbiont of Sesbania rostrata, where it forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on both the roots and the stems of the legume host. We identify here a chemotaxis receptor sensing oxygen in A. caulinodans that is critical for nodulation and nitrogen fixation on the stems and roots of S. rostrata These results identify oxygen sensing and chemotaxis as key regulators of the A. caulinodans-S. rostrata symbiosis.