Project description:Strongylocentrotus intermedius (A. Agassiz, 1863) is an economically important sea urchin inhabiting the northwest Pacific region of Asia. The northern Primorye (Sea of Japan) populations of S. intermedius consist of two sympatric morphological forms, "usual" (U) and "gray" (G). The two forms are significantly different in morphology and preferred bathymetric distribution, the G form prevailing in deeper-water settlements. We have analyzed the genetic composition of the S. intermedius forms using the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene encoding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the nuclear gene encoding bindin to evaluate the possibility of cryptic species within S. intermedius. We have examined the presence of symbiont microorganisms by means of 16S rRNA sequences. The nucleotide sequence divergence between the morphological forms is low: 0.74% and 0.70% for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear gene encoding bindin, respectively, which is significantly below average intrageneric sequence divergence among Strongylocentrotus species. We thus have found no genetic evidence of cryptic species within S. intermedius. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the bacteria symbionts of S. intermedius belong to the phylum Bacteroidetes, but the U and G forms predominantly harbor highly divergent bacterial lineages belonging to two different taxonomic classes, Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. We propose that the U and G forms of S. intermedius represent distinct ecomorphological adaptations to contrasting shallow- and deep-water marine environments and might be considered incipient species. We also propose that the symbiotic bacteria likely play an important role in the evolution of morphological divergence of S. intermedius.
Project description:To explore the impact of chronic heat stress on commercial echinoderms, the present study assessed the effects of chronic high temperature on the growth, survival, feeding, and differential gene expression in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius cultured in northern Yellow Sea in China. One suitable seawater condition (20°C) and one laboratory-controlled high temperature condition (25°C) were set up. After 28 days incubation, our results showed that: (1) The specific growth, survival, and ingestion rates of S. intermedius reared under high temperature (25°C) decreased compared to those reared under optimal temperature (20°C) conditions; (2) comparative transcriptome analysis identified 2,125 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in S. intermedius reared under high temperature (25°C) compared to those subjected to optimal temperature condition (20°C), which included 1,015 upregulated and 1,100 downregulated genes. The accuracy of the transcriptome profiles was verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Further Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyses revealed that these DEGs mainly enriched the functional categories of ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, and prion diseases. A total of 732 temperature-induced expressed genes, such as ATP5, heat shock protein 70, and heat shock protein 90, were identified as candidates that were closely correlated with heat resistance in S. intermedius. Differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs), such as AP-1, Fos, CREB, and ZNF, were also identified as potential regulators that regulate the molecular network that was associated with responses to heat stress in sea urchins. Observations in the present study provide additional information that improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism of temperate echinoid species in response to heat stress, as well as theoretical basis for the molecular-assisted breeding of heat-resistant sea urchins.
Project description:The complete mitochondrial genomes are sequenced in two individuals representing two morphological forms, 'usual' (U) and 'gray' (G), of the short-spined sea urchin <i>Strongylocentrotus intermedius</i>. The genome sequences are 15,705?bp in size, and the gene arrangement, composition, and size are very similar to the other sea urchin mitochondrial genomes published previously. A low level of sequence divergence (<i>D</i> <sub>xy</sub>?=?0.0083?±?0.0007) is detected between the forms. The GenBank (KC490912) mt genome of <i>S. intermedius</i> is much closer to the U form (<i>D</i> <sub>xy</sub>?=?0.0013?±?0.0003) than to the G form (<i>D</i> <sub>xy</sub>?=?0.0085?±?0.0006), demonstrating unique evolutionary trajectories for each form, which we previously suggested based on the <i>bindin</i> gene and symbiont analyses.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in regulating many bio-processes of eukaryotes. The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (an important fishery resource) is of great economic importance in Japan, North Korea, Russia, and China. In the current study, miRNAs of tube foot in S. intermedius were firstly identified and characterized. Data in this study can provide more genomic information for the further understanding of the complex regulation network in sea urchins and present a new way for monitoring the health status of cultured sea urchins.