Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the optimal vaccination strategies for the control of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in case of early mycoplasmal infection. METHODS:A total of 120 pigs were randomly divided into 6 groups (20 pigs per group). Four separate vaccine regimen groups were selected. Pigs from the four vaccinated groups were challenged with M. hyopneumoniae at 28 days old followed by a challenge of PRRSV or PCV2 at 49 days old. RESULTS:Regardless of PRRSV or PCV2 vaccination, pigs vaccinated with one of the M. hyopneumoniae vaccines at 7 days old had a significantly better growth performance over the whole length of the study compared to pigs vaccinated with a second M. hyopneumoniae vaccine at 21 days old. Vaccination of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae at 7 days and PRRSV at either 7, 14 or 21 days old resulted in significantly reduced PRRSV viremia and lung lesions compared to vaccination of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 21 days old. CONCLUSIONS:The efficacy of the PRRSV MLV vaccine is influenced by the different timing of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination whereas the efficacy of the PCV2 vaccine is not. This experiment study demonstrated that early vaccination with a M. hyopneumoniae vaccine should be the highest priority in order to control M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV infection in cases of early M. hyopneumoniae infection.
Project description:The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines in regard to growth performance, microbiological and immunological analyses, and pathological observation from wean to finish (175 d of age). Pigs were administered M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccines at 7 and 21 d of age, respectively, or both at 21 d old and then challenged with both M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 49 d old. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed between the 2 vaccinated challenged groups in average daily weight gain, nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-? secreting cells, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. Induction of interleukin-10 following PRRSV vaccination does not interfere with the immune responses induced by M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study demonstrated that the single-dose vaccination regimen for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccine is efficacious for controlling coinfection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation.
Project description:The present study evaluated the efficacy of swine vacciation using a combination of mixable monovalents for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae against a ready-to-use bivalent vaccine under experimental conditions. Pigs at 21 days of age were administered either a combination of two mixable monovalent vaccines or a bivalent vaccine containing PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae. Vaccination was followed with an M. hyopneumoniae challenge at 42 days of age (-14 days post challenge, dpc) and a PCV2d challenge at 56 days of age (0 dpc). Each vaccinated and challenged group was compared with the unvaccinated and challenged group for clinical, microbiological, immunologic, and pathologic differences. Clinically, two vaccinated and challenged groups showed minimal respiratory diseases that was characterized by occasionally coughing and sneezing. A significant difference was not calculated in the average daily weight gain, nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, and pathological lesions between two vaccinated and challenged groups. A combination of two monovalent vaccines mixed into a combo prior to vaccination followed by challenge resulted in increased numbers of PCV2d-specific interferon-? secreting cells at 21 dpc and a significant reduction in PCV2d viremia at 14 dpc when compared with the ready-to-use bivalent-vaccinated and challenged groups. These results offer supporting evidence that vaccination during the weaning to finishing period against M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2 is efficacious for controlling diseases caused by these two pathogens.
Project description:The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc). Significant differences were observed between vaccinated challenged and unvaccinated challenged groups in clinical (average daily gain and clinical signs), microbiologic (viremia and nasal shedding), immunologic (antibodies and interferon-? secreting cells), and pathologic (lesions) outcomes. Significant differences were observed among the 3 vaccinated challenged groups in microbiologic (nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and viremia of PCV2) and immunologic (M. hyopneumoniae- and PCV2-specific interferon-? secreting cells) outcomes. The vaccination regimen for PRRSV vaccine, M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, and PCV2 vaccine is efficacious for controlling triple challenge with PRRSV, M. hyopneumoniae, and PCV2 from weaning to finishing period.
Project description:Mycoplasmas persist in the host for a long time, suggesting that they possess mechanisms for immune evasion. Factor H is a negative regulator of the complement system, which binds to host cells to avoid unexpected complement activation. In this study, we revealed that many mycoplasmas, such as Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma flocculare, and Mycoplasma bovis could hijack factor H such that they present themselves as a host tissue and thus escape from complement attack. Furthermore, the mechanism of recruiting factor H was identified in M. hyopneumoniae. M. hyopneumoniae binds factor H via factor H binding proteins, such as elongation factor thermo unstable (EF-Tu), P146, pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) E1 component subunit alpha (PdhA), P46, Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta (PdhB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and three different hypothetical proteins. The binding of factor H by EF-Tu further contributes to decreased C3 deposition on the M. hyopneumoniae surface and ultimately blocks further complement activation. In fact, binding of factor H occurs in a multifactorial manner; factor H is not only exploited by M. hyopneumoniae via its regulator activity to help mycoplasmas escape from complement killing, but also increases M. hyopneumoniae adhesion to swine tracheal epithelial cells, partially through EF-Tu. Meanwhile, the high sequence identity among EF-Tu proteins in the above-mentioned mycoplasmas implied the universality of the mechanism. This is the first report that mycoplasmas can escape complement killing by binding to factor H.
Project description:Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood.In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence.The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.
Project description:Enzootic pneumonia incurs major economic losses to pork production globally. The primary pathogen and causative agent, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, colonises ciliated epithelium and disrupts mucociliary function predisposing the upper respiratory tract to secondary pathogens. Alleviation of disease is reliant on antibiotics, vaccination, and sound animal husbandry, but none are effective at eliminating M. hyopneumoniae from large production systems. Sustainable pork production systems strive to lower reliance on antibiotics but lack of a detailed understanding of the pathobiology of M. hyopneumoniae has curtailed efforts to develop effective mitigation strategies. M. hyopneumoniae is considered an extracellular pathogen. Here we show that M. hyopneumoniae associates with integrin ?1 on the surface of epithelial cells via interactions with surface-bound fibronectin and initiates signalling events that stimulate pathogen uptake into clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and caveosomes. These early events allow M. hyopneumoniae to exploit an intracellular lifestyle by commandeering the endosomal pathway. Specifically, we show: (i) using a modified gentamicin protection assay that approximately 8% of M. hyopneumoniae cells reside intracellularly; (ii) integrin ?1 expression specifically co-localises with the deposition of fibronectin precisely where M. hyopneumoniae cells assemble extracellularly; (iii) anti-integrin ?1 antibodies block entry of M. hyopneumoniae into porcine cells; and (iv) M. hyopneumoniae survives phagolysosomal fusion, and resides within recycling endosomes that are trafficked to the cell membrane. Our data creates a paradigm shift by challenging the long-held view that M. hyopneumoniae is a strict extracellular pathogen and calls for in vivo studies to determine if M. hyopneumoniae can traffic to extrapulmonary sites in commercially-reared pigs.
Project description:Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a prevalent swine respiratory pathogen that is a major cause of economic loss to pig producers. Control is achieved by a combination of antimicrobials, vaccination and management practices, but current vaccines offer only partial control and there is a need for improved preventative strategies. A major barrier to advances in understanding the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and in developing new vaccines is the lack of tools to genetically manipulate the organism. We describe the development and optimisation of the first successful plasmid-based system for the genetic manipulation of M. hyopneumoniae. Our artificial plasmids contain the origin of replication (oriC) of M. hyopneumoniae along with tetM, conferring resistance to tetracycline. With these plasmids, we have successfully transformed M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 by electroporation, generating tetracycline resistant organisms. The persistence of extrachromosomal plasmid and maintenance of plasmid DNA over serial passages shows that these artificial plasmids are capable of self-replication in M. hyopneumoniae. In addition to demonstrating the amenability of M. hyopneumoniae to genetic manipulation and in optimising the conditions necessary for successful transformation, we have used this system to determine the minimum functional oriC of M. hyopneumoniae. In doing so, we have developed a plasmid with a small oriC that is stably maintained over multiple passages that may be useful in generating targeted gene disruptions. In conclusion, we have generated a set of plasmids that will be valuable in studies of M. hyopneumoniae pathogenesis and provide a major step forward in the study of this important swine pathogen.
Project description:The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.
Project description:Enolase is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme involved in the processes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae belongs to Mycoplasma, whose species are wall-less and among the smallest self-replicating bacteria, and is an important colonizing respiratory pathogen in the pig industry worldwide. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enolase (Mhp Eno) expression is significantly increased after infection and was previously found to be a virulence factor candidate. Our studies show that Mhp Eno is a cell surface-localized protein that can adhere to swine tracheal epithelial cells (STECs). Adhesion to STECs can be specifically inhibited by an Mhp Eno antibody. Mhp Eno can recognize and interact with plasminogen with high affinity. Here, the first crystal structure of the mycoplasmal enolase from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was determined. The structure showed unique features of Mhp Eno in the S3/H1, H6/S6, H7/H8, and H13 regions. All of these regions were longer than those of other enolases and were exposed on the Mhp Eno surface, making them accessible to host molecules. These results show that Mhp Eno has specific structural characteristics and acts as a multifunctional adhesin on the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae cell surface.