Project description:BCR pathway inhibitors idelalisib and ibrutinib are the first small molecule targeted agents for B-cell malignancies. In spite of encouraging response rates in various forms of B cell diseases, patients will eventually develop relapse due to the emergence of resistant cells. To better identify the possible mechanisms of resistance we developed and characterized idelalisib- and ibrutinib-resistant variants of the human non Hodgkin’s lymphoma cell lines DoHH2 and Daudi. These resistant variants displayed a cross-resistance profile limited to PI3K inhibitors, BTK inhibitors and a SYK inhibitor but not to unrelated agents. A number of alterations were observed in the resistant lines, including a strong reduction of the Akt3 protein. Resistant lines tended to express larger amounts of CD38 and CD52 on their cell membrane and were found to display enhanced sensitivity to anti-CD38 antibodies. These results identify potential novel mechanisms of resistance to idelalisib and ibrutinib and raise the possibility that cells resistant to BCR pathway inhibitors might possess enhanced sensitivity to anti-CD38 antibodies. Overall design: WT cell lines and resistant cell lines have been sequenced with one replicate
Project description:Chronic activation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK)-mediated B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is a hallmark of many B-cell lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Ibrutinib, an FDA approved, orally administered BTK inhibitor, has demonstrated high response rates, however, complete responses are infrequent and acquired resistance to BTK inhibition can emerge. In this study, we generated ibrutinib-resistant (IB-R) cell lines by chronic exposure of CLL and activated B-cell (ABC)-DLBCL cells to ibrutinib in order to investigate the mechanism of acquired resistance to ibrutinib. IB-R cell lines demonstrated downregulation of FOXO3a and PTEN levels and activation of AKT, with their levels being low in the nuclei of resistant cells in comparison to the sensitive counterparts. Inhibition of PI3K and AKT using idelalisib and MK2206, respectively increased ibrutinib-induced apoptosis in IB-R cells by downregulation of pAKT<sup>473</sup> and restoring FOXO3a levels, demonstrating the importance of these cell survival factors for ibrutinib-resistance. Notably, the exportin 1 inhibitor, selinexor synergized with ibrutinib in IB-R cells and restored nuclear abundance of FOXO3a and PTEN, suggesting that nuclear accumulation of FOXO3a and PTEN facilitates increase in ibrutinib-induced apoptosis in IB-R cells. These data demonstrate that reactivation of FOXO3a nuclear function enhances the efficacy of ibrutinib and overcomes acquired resistance to ibrutinib. Together, these findings reveal a novel mechanism that confers ibrutinib resistance via aberrant nuclear/cytoplasmic subcellular localization of FOXO3a and could be exploited by rational therapeutic combination regimens for effectively treating lymphoid malignancies.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological B cell malignancy characterised by clonal proliferation of plasma cells and their accumulation in the bone marrow. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of biological effects of Ibrutinib in human MM cell lines alone or in combination with different doses of Bortezomib. In addition, the relationship between the expression of TRPML2 channels and chemosensitivity of different MM cell lines to Ibrutinib administered alone or in combination with Bortezomib has been evaluated. By RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, we found that the Ibrutinib-resistant U266 cells showed lower TRPML2 expression, whereas higher TRPML2 mRNA and protein levels were evidenced in RPMI cells. Moreover, TRPML2 gene silencing in RPMI cells markedly reverted the effects induced by Ibrutinib alone or in combination with Bortezomib suggesting that the sensitivity to Ibrutinib is TRPML2 mediated. In conclusion, this study suggests that the expression of TRPML2 in MM cells increases the sensitivity to Ibrutinib treatment, suggesting for a potential stratification of Ibrutinib sensitivity of MM patients on the basis of the TRPML2 expression. Furthermore, studies in vitro and in vivo should still be necessary to completely address the molecular mechanisms and the potential role of TRPML2 channels in therapy and prognosis of MM patients.
Project description:Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin genes. As a trade-off for its physiological function, AID also contributes to tumor development through its mutagenic activity. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), AID is overexpressed in the proliferative fractions (PFs) of the malignant B lymphocytes, and its anomalous expression has been associated with a clinical poor outcome. Recent preclinical data suggested that ibrutinib and idelalisib, 2 clinically approved kinase inhibitors, increase AID expression and genomic instability in normal and neoplastic B cells. These results raise concerns about a potential mutagenic risk in patients receiving long-term therapy. To corroborate these findings in the clinical setting, we analyzed AID expression and PFs in a CLL cohort before and during ibrutinib treatment. We found that ibrutinib decreases the CLL PFs and, interestingly, also reduces AID expression, which correlates with dampened AKT and Janus Kinase 1 signaling. Moreover, although ibrutinib increases AID expression in a CLL cell line, it is unable to do so in primary CLL samples. Our results uncover a differential response to ibrutinib between cell lines and the CLL clone and imply that ibrutinib could differ from idelalisib in their potential to induce AID in treated patients. Possible reasons for the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical findings, and their effect on treatment safety, are discussed.
Project description:B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm with an aggressive clinical course. Treatment strategies for B-PLL remain to be established, and, until recently, alemtuzumab was the only effective therapeutic option in patients harboring 17p deletions. Herein, we describe, for the first time, a case of B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia harboring a 17p deletion in a 48-year-old man that was successfully treated sequentially with idelalisib-rituximab/ibrutinib followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). After 5 months of therapy with idelalisib-rituximab, clinical remission was achieved, but the development of severe diarrhea led to its discontinuation. Subsequently, the patient was treated for 2 months with ibrutinib and the quality of the response was maintained with no severe adverse effects reported. A reduced-intensity conditioning allo-HSCT from a HLA-matched unrelated donor was performed, and, thereafter, the patient has been in complete remission for 10 months now. In conclusion, given the poor prognosis of B-PLL and the lack of effective treatment modalities, the findings here suggest that both ibrutinib and idelalisib should be considered as upfront therapy of B-PLL and as a bridge to allo-HSCT.
Project description:Ibrutinib is highly active in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) patients, but disease progression can occur due to acquired mutations in BTK, the target of ibrutinib, or PLCG2, the protein downstream of BTK. However, not all resistant patients harbour these alterations. We have performed a whole-exome sequencing study to identify alternative molecular mechanisms that can drive ibrutinib resistance. Our findings include deletions on chromosomes 6q, including homozygous deletions, and 8p, which encompass key regulators of BTK, MYD88/NF-κB, and apoptotic signalling. Moreover, we have identified recurring mutations in ubiquitin ligases, innate immune signalling, and TLR/MYD88 pathway regulators in ibrutinib-resistant WM patients.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) are the most prevalent B-lymphocyte neoplasms in which abnormal activation of the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK)–mediated B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway contributes to pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an oral covalent BTK inhibitor that has shown some efficacy in both indications. To improve ibrutinib efficacy through combination therapy, we first investigated differential gene expression in parental and ibrutinib-resistant cell lines to better understand the mechanisms of resistance. Ibrutinib-resistant TMD8 cells had higher BCL2 gene expression and increased sensitivity to ABT-199, a BCL-2 inhibitor. Consistently, clinical samples from ABC-DLBCL patients who experienced poorer response to ibrutinib had higher BCL2 gene expression. We further demonstrated synergistic growth suppression by ibrutinib and ABT-199 in multiple ABC-DLBCL, GCB-DLBCL, and FL lymphoma cell lines. The combination of both drugs also reduced colony formation, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth in a TMD8 xenograft model. A synergistic combination effect was also found in ibrutinib-resistant cells generated by either genetic mutation or drug treatment. Together, these findings suggest a potential clinical benefit from ibrutinib and ABT-199 combination therapy. Overall design: Gene expression in parental or ibrutinib-resistant TMD8 cells was detected by HTA2.0 arrays and the level of BCL2 expression was compared between these two groups.
Project description:B-cell receptor (BCR) antagonists such as the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib have proven to effectively target chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) tumor cells, leading to impressive response rates in these patients. However patients do still relapse on ibrutinib, and the progressive disease is often quite aggressive requiring immediate treatment. Several strategies are being pursued to treat patients who relapse on ibrutinib therapy. As the most common form of relapse is the development of a mutant form of BTK which limits ibrutinib binding, agents which lead to degradation of the BTK protein are a promising strategy. Our study explores the efficacy of the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-5422, in CLL. The SNX Hsp90 inhibitor was effective in primary CLL cells, as well as B-cell lines expressing either BTK wild type or C481 mutant BTK, which has been identified as the primary resistance mechanism to ibrutinib in CLL patients. Furthermore the combination of SNX-5422 and ibrutinib provided a remarkable in vivo survival benefit in the E?-TCL1 mouse model of CLL compared to the vehicle or single agent groups (51 day median survival in the vehicle and ibrutinib groups versus 100 day median survival in the combination). We report here preclinical data suggesting that the Hsp90 inhibitor SNX-5422, which has been pursued in clinical trials in both solid tumor and hematological malignancies, is a potential therapy for ibrutinib resistant CLL.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting signaling molecules downstream B cell receptor (BCR) are powerfully spreading in the therapeutic landscape of B cell lymphoproliferative disease, due to a manageable toxicity profile and encouraging clinical effectiveness. In particular, ibrutinib, previously called PCI-32765, is a potent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk), recently approved for the treatment of relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Moreover, idelalisib (formerly GS-1101 and CAL-101) is a selective reversible inhibitor of the p110? isoform of phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) and CLL. These agents directly affect the neoplastic clone, disrupting the supportive platform provided by BCR signaling cascade and by other microenvironmental mutualistic interactions, and also interfering with chemokine gradients and adhesive properties of neoplastic B cells. In the present review, we describe the clinical efficacy of ibrutinib and idelalisib in CLL and B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), then focusing on the mode of action (MOA) of these TKIs towards the neoplastic B cell compartment. At last, the review would further expand the view on potential additional targets of ibrutinib and idelalisib belonging to other microenvironmental cellular elements.
Project description:Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous lymphoma and the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for roughly 30% of newly diagnosed cases in the United States. DLBCL can be separated into the activated B cell-like (ABC) and germinal center B cell-like (GCB) subtypes, with distinct gene expression profiles, oncogenic aberrations, and clinical outcomes. ABC-DLBCL is characterized by chronically active B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling that can be modulated by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) activity. Thus, BTK serves as an attractive therapeutic target in this type of B-cell malignancy. Ibrutinib, a first-in-class, orally available covalent BTK inhibitor, has demonstrated clinical activity in several B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. A phase 1/2 clinical trial of single-agent ibrutinib in relapsed and refractory DLBCL patients revealed an overall response rate of 37% in ABC-DLBCL patients. However, responses to kinase-directed therapies are often limited by emerging resistance mechanisms that bypass the therapeutic target. Here we report the discovery of point mutations within the kinase PIM1 that reduce sensitivity to ibrutinib in ABC-DLBCL. These mutations stabilize PIM1 and affect upstream regulators and downstream targets of NF-?B signaling. The introduction of mutant PIM1 into an ABC-DLBCL cell line, TMD8, increased colony formation and decreased sensitivity to ibrutinib. In addition, ibrutinib-resistant cell lines generated by prolonged ibrutinib exposure in vitro upregulated PIM1 expression, consistent with a role for PIM1 in antagonizing ibrutinib activity. The combination of a pan-PIM inhibitor with ibrutinib synergistically inhibited proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Together, these data provide a rationale for combining BTK and PIM1 inhibition in the treatment of ABC-DLBCL.