Project description:Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human iPS cells are expected to be utilized in pharmaceutical research and regenerative medicine. Recently, various culture methods for human iPS cell maintenance have been developed. However, it is not well known whether human iPS cell maintenance method affects hepatic differentiation potency. In this study, we cultured human iPS cells using four maintenance methods: ReproStem medium with feeder cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), AK02N medium with iMatrix-511 (E8 fragments of laminin511), Essential 8 medium with Vitronectin N (N-terminal domain of vitronectin), TeSR-E8 medium with Vitronectin XF (xeno-free vitronectin). Then, these human iPS cells were differentiated into the hepatocyte-like cells. Interestingly, the gene expression levels of definitive endoderm markers in the definitive endoderm cells generated from human iPS cells cultured with ReproStem or TeSR-E8 medium were higher than those in other groups. The gene expression level of foregut marker, HHEX, in the definitive endoderm cells generated from human iPS cells cultured with ReproStem medium was higher than that in other groups. Consistently, the expression levels of hepatocyte markers, albumin and urea secretion capacity, and CYP3A4 activity in the hepatocyte-like cells generated from human iPS cells cultured with ReproStem medium were higher than those in other groups. Our data indicated that the most suitable human iPS cell maintenance method for efficient hepatic differentiation was the on-feeder method which uses mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but not feeder-free methods. In conclusion, human iPS cell maintenance method largely affects hepatic differentiation potency. Overall design: The human iPS cell line, YOW-iPS was maintained by one of four different culture methods (Repro, AK02N, E8, and TeSR-E8 method). Repro, AK02N, E8, and TeSR-E8 were pooled from triplicate samples of one independent experiments, and then microarray analysis was performed.
Project description:Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.
Project description:Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.
Project description:Clinical barriers to stem-cell therapy include the need for efficient derivation of histocompatible stem cells and the zoonotic risk inherent to human stem-cell xenoculture on mouse feeder cells. We describe a system for efficiently deriving induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human and mouse amniocytes, and for maintaining the pluripotency of these iPS cells on mitotically inactivated feeder layers prepared from the same amniocytes. Both cellular components of this system are thus autologous to a single donor. Moreover, the use of human feeder cells reduces the risk of zoonosis. Generation of iPS cells using retroviral vectors from short- or long-term cultured human and mouse amniocytes using four factors, or two factors in mouse, occurs in 5-7 days with 0.5% efficiency. This efficiency is greater than that reported for mouse and human fibroblasts using similar viral infection approaches, and does not appear to result from selective reprogramming of Oct4(+) or c-Kit(+) amniocyte subpopulations. Derivation of amniocyte-derived iPS (AdiPS) cell colonies, which express pluripotency markers and exhibit appropriate microarray expression and DNA methylation properties, was facilitated by live immunostaining. AdiPS cells also generate embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Furthermore, mouse and human amniocytes can serve as feeder layers for iPS cells and for mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Thus, human amniocytes provide an efficient source of autologous iPS cells and, as feeder cells, can also maintain iPS and ES cell pluripotency without the safety concerns associated with xenoculture.
Project description:Contractile motion is the simplest metric of cardiomyocyte health in vitro, but unbiased quantification is challenging. We describe a rapid automated method, requiring only standard video microscopy, to analyze the contractility of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). New algorithms for generating and filtering motion vectors combined with a newly developed isogenic iPSC line harboring genetically encoded calcium indicator, GCaMP6f, allow simultaneous user-independent measurement and analysis of the coupling between calcium flux and contractility. The relative performance of these algorithms, in terms of improving signal to noise, was tested. Applying these algorithms allowed analysis of contractility in iPS-CM cultured over multiple spatial scales from single cells to three-dimensional constructs. This open source software was validated with analysis of isoproterenol response in these cells, and can be applied in future studies comparing the drug responsiveness of iPS-CM cultured in different microenvironments in the context of tissue engineering.
Project description:The loss of glomerular podocytes is a key event in the progression of chronic kidney disease resulting in proteinuria and declining function. Podocytes are slow cycling cells that are considered terminally differentiated. Here we provide the first report of the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to generate kidney cells with podocyte features. The iPS-derived podocytes share a morphological phenotype analogous with cultured human podocytes. Following 10 days of directed differentiation, iPS podocytes had an up-regulated expression of mRNA and protein localization for podocyte markers including synaptopodin, nephrin and Wilm's tumour protein (WT1), combined with a down-regulation of the stem cell marker OCT3/4. In contrast to human podocytes that become quiescent in culture, iPS-derived cells maintain a proliferative capacity suggestive of a more immature phenotype. The transduction of iPS podocytes with fluorescent labeled-talin that were immunostained with podocin showed a cytoplasmic contractile response to angiotensin II (AII). A permeability assay provided functional evidence of albumin uptake in the cytoplasm of iPS podocytes comparable to human podocytes. Moreover, labeled iPS-derived podocytes were found to integrate into reaggregated metanephric kidney explants where they incorporated into developing glomeruli and co-expressed WT1. This study establishes the differentiation of iPS cells to kidney podocytes that will be useful for screening new treatments, understanding podocyte pathogenesis, and offering possibilities for regenerative medicine.
Project description:The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42?°C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42?°C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42?°C, and iPS cell death at 42?°C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.
Project description:Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have immunosuppressive properties. However, RPE cells are also known as immunogenic cells, and they have major histocompatibility complex expression and produce inflammatory proteins, and thus experience immune rejection after transplantation. In this study, to confirm the immunological properties of IPS-RPE cells, we examined whether human RPE cells derived from iPS cells could suppress or stimulate inflammatory T cells from uveitis patients via costimulatory signals. We established T cells from patients with active uveitis as target cells and used iPS-RPE cells as effector cells. As a result, cultured iPS-RPE cells inhibited cell proliferation and the production of IFN-? by activated uveitis CD4+ T cells, especially Th1-type T cells. In contrast, iPS-RPE cells stimulated T cells of uveitis patients. The iPS-RPE cells constitutively expressed B7-H1/CD274 and B7-DC/CD273, and suppressed the activation of T cells via the PD-1 receptor. iPS-RPE expressed these negative costimulatory molecules, especially when RPE cells were pretreated with recombinant IFN-?. In addition, iPS-RPE cells also expressed B7-H3/CD276 costimulatory molecules and activated uveitis T cells through the B7-H3-TLT-2 receptor. Thus, cultured iPS-derived retinal cells can suppress or activate inflammatory T cells in vitro through costimulatory interactions.
Project description:Four new compounds obtained from cultured cells of Artemisia annua were reported. Products were detected by HPLC-ELSD/GC-MS and isolated by chromatographic methods. The structures of four new compounds, namely 6-hydroxy arteannuin I (1), 1-hydroxy arteannuin I (2), 2-hydroxy arteannuin J (3), and 14-hydroxy arteannuin J (4), were elucidated using their physico-chemical properties by NMR and MS data analyses. The results from the spontaneous oxidative experiment indicated that the biosynthesis of the new compounds was enzyme-catalyzed. Interestingly, the enzymes in the cultured cells of A. annua showed the abilities of substrate-selective and region-selective hydroxylation of the sesquiterpene lactone. Furthermore, the artemisinin contents were increased by 50% and 80% compared to the control group after the addition of arteannuin I/J to the suspension-cultured cells of A. annua under light and dark culture conditions, respectively.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cells possess the ability to proliferate indefinitely and to differentiate into almost any cell type. Additionally, the development of techniques to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has generated interest and excitement towards the possibility of customized personal regenerative medicine. However, the efficiency of stem cell differentiation towards a desired lineage remains low. The purpose of this study is to describe a protocol to derive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from iPS cells (iPS-RPE) by applying a tissue engineering approach to generate homogenous populations of embryoid bodies (EBs), a common intermediate during in vitro differentiation. The protocol applies the formation of specific size of EBs using microwell plate technology. The methods for identifying protein and gene markers of RPE by immunocytochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are also explained. Finally, the efficiency of differentiation in different sizes of EBs monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of RPE markers is described. These techniques will facilitate the differentiation of iPS cells into RPE for future applications.