Project description:BACKGROUND: As more and more reference genome sequences are assembled, it becomes practical to assemble individual genomes from large amount of raw read data based on a reference sequence. However, most available assembly tools are designed for de-novo genome assembly. There is one commercial tool box (Newbler) developed for re-sequencing projects based on the Roche 454 sequencing platform. However, the genome with large repeat regions cannot be well assembled in Newbler. FINDINGS: We developed a new sequence assembly tool (BIGrat, Beijing Institute of Genomics Re-Assembly Tool) for pyrosequencing-based re-sequencing projects, such as data generated from Roche 454 and IonTorrent platforms. BIGrat improves the output of Newbler when evaluated on genome assemblies including chloroplast, mitochondrial, bacterial, and plant nuclear genomes. CONCLUSION: We presented a novel sequence assembly tool BIGrat for pyrosequencing-based re-sequencing projects, which can easily be integrated into Newbler pipelines for next-generation sequencing assembly and analysis.
Project description:The availability of genomes across the tree of life is highly biased toward vertebrates, pathogens, human disease models, and organisms with relatively small and simple genomes. Recent progress in genomics has enabled the de novo decoding of the genome of virtually any organism, greatly expanding its potential for understanding the biology and evolution of the full spectrum of biodiversity. The increasing diversity of sequencing technologies, assays, and de novo assembly algorithms have augmented the complexity of de novo genome sequencing projects in non-model organisms. To reduce the costs and challenges in de novo genome sequencing projects and streamline their experimental design and analysis, we developed iWGS (in silico Whole Genome Sequencer and Analyzer), an automated pipeline for guiding the choice of appropriate sequencing strategy and assembly protocols. iWGS seamlessly integrates the four key steps of a de novo genome sequencing project: data generation (through simulation), data quality control, de novo assembly, and assembly evaluation and validation. The last three steps can also be applied to the analysis of real data. iWGS is designed to enable the user to have great flexibility in testing the range of experimental designs available for genome sequencing projects, and supports all major sequencing technologies and popular assembly tools. Three case studies illustrate how iWGS can guide the design of de novo genome sequencing projects and evaluate the performance of a wide variety of user-specified sequencing strategies and assembly protocols on genomes of differing architectures. iWGS, along with a detailed documentation, is freely available at https://github.com/zhouxiaofan1983/iWGS.
Project description:Recent developments in high-throughput sequencing technology have made low-cost sequencing an attractive approach for many genome analysis tasks. Increasing read lengths, improving quality and the production of increasingly larger numbers of usable sequences per instrument-run continue to make whole-genome assembly an appealing target application. In this paper we evaluate the feasibility of de novo genome assembly from short reads (?100 nucleotides) through a detailed study involving genomic sequences of various lengths and origin, in conjunction with several of the currently popular assembly programs. Our extensive analysis demonstrates that, in addition to sequencing coverage, attributes such as the architecture of the target genome, the identity of the used assembly program, the average read length and the observed sequencing error rates are powerful variables that affect the best achievable assembly of the target sequence in terms of size and correctness.
Project description:Illumina sequencing allows rapid, cheap and accurate whole genome bacterial analyses, but short reads (<300?bp) do not usually enable complete genome assembly. Long-read sequencing greatly assists with resolving complex bacterial genomes, particularly when combined with short-read Illumina data (hybrid assembly). However, it is not clear how different long-read sequencing methods affect hybrid assembly accuracy. Relative automation of the assembly process is also crucial to facilitating high-throughput complete bacterial genome reconstruction, avoiding multiple bespoke filtering and data manipulation steps. In this study, we compared hybrid assemblies for 20 bacterial isolates, including two reference strains, using Illumina sequencing and long reads from either Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) or SMRT Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequencing platforms. We chose isolates from the family Enterobacteriaceae, as these frequently have highly plastic, repetitive genetic structures, and complete genome reconstruction for these species is relevant for a precise understanding of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. We de novo assembled genomes using the hybrid assembler Unicycler and compared different read processing strategies, as well as comparing to long-read-only assembly with Flye followed by short-read polishing with Pilon. Hybrid assembly with either PacBio or ONT reads facilitated high-quality genome reconstruction, and was superior to the long-read assembly and polishing approach evaluated with respect to accuracy and completeness. Combining ONT and Illumina reads fully resolved most genomes without additional manual steps, and at a lower consumables cost per isolate in our setting. Automated hybrid assembly is a powerful tool for complete and accurate bacterial genome assembly.
Project description:Advances in sequencing technology have drastically increased the depth and feasibility of bacterial genome sequencing. However, little information is available that details the specific techniques and procedures employed during genome sequencing despite the large numbers of published genomes. Shotgun approaches employed by second-generation sequencing platforms has necessitated the development of robust bioinformatics tools for in silico assembly, and complete assembly is limited by the presence of repetitive DNA sequences and multi-copy operons. Typically, re-sequencing with multiple platforms and laborious, targeted Sanger sequencing are employed to finish a draft bacterial genome. Here we describe a novel strategy based on the identification and targeted sequencing of repetitive rDNA operons to expedite bacterial genome assembly and finishing. Our strategy was validated by finishing the genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain CR1, a bacterium with potential in sustainable agriculture and bio-based processes. An analysis of the 38 contigs contained in the P. polymyxa strain CR1 draft genome revealed 12 repetitive rDNA operons with varied intragenic and flanking regions of variable length, unanimously located at contig boundaries and within contig gaps. These highly similar but not identical rDNA operons were experimentally verified and sequenced simultaneously with multiple, specially designed primer sets. This approach also identified and corrected significant sequence rearrangement generated during the initial in silico assembly of sequencing reads. Our approach reduces the required effort associated with blind primer walking for contig assembly, increasing both the speed and feasibility of genome finishing. Our study further reinforces the notion that repetitive DNA elements are major limiting factors for genome finishing. Moreover, we provided a step-by-step workflow for genome finishing, which may guide future bacterial genome finishing projects.
Project description:(1) Background: Short-read sequencing allows for the rapid and accurate analysis of the whole bacterial genome but does not usually enable complete genome assembly. Long-read sequencing greatly assists with the resolution of complex bacterial genomes, particularly when combined with short-read Illumina data. However, it is not clear how different assembly strategies affect genomic accuracy, completeness, and protein prediction. (2) Methods: we compare different assembly strategies for <i>Haemophilus parasuis</i>, which causes Glässer's disease, characterized by fibrinous polyserositis and arthritis, in swine by using Illumina sequencing and long reads from the sequencing platforms of either Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) or SMRT Pacific Biosciences (PacBio). (3) Results: Assembly with either PacBio or ONT reads, followed by polishing with Illumina reads, facilitated high-quality genome reconstruction and was superior to the long-read-only assembly and hybrid-assembly strategies when evaluated in terms of accuracy and completeness. An equally excellent method was correction with Homopolish after the ONT-only assembly, which had the advantage of avoiding hybrid sequencing with Illumina. Furthermore, by aligning transcripts to assembled genomes and their predicted CDSs, the sequencing errors of the ONT assembly were mainly indels that were generated when homopolymer regions were sequenced, thus critically affecting protein prediction. Polishing can fill indels and correct mistakes. (4) Conclusions: The assembly of bacterial genomes can be directly achieved by using long-read sequencing techniques. To maximize assembly accuracy, it is essential to polish the assembly with homologous sequences of related genomes or sequencing data from short-read technology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rice research has been enabled by access to the high quality reference genome sequence generated in 2005 by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP). To further facilitate genomic-enabled research, we have updated and validated the genome assembly and sequence for the Nipponbare cultivar of Oryza sativa (japonica group). RESULTS:The Nipponbare genome assembly was updated by revising and validating the minimal tiling path of clones with the optical map for rice. Sequencing errors in the revised genome assembly were identified by re-sequencing the genome of two different Nipponbare individuals using the Illumina Genome Analyzer II/IIx platform. A total of 4,886 sequencing errors were identified in 321 Mb of the assembled genome indicating an error rate in the original IRGSP assembly of only 0.15 per 10,000 nucleotides. A small number (five) of insertions/deletions were identified using longer reads generated using the Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform. As the re-sequencing data were generated from two different individuals, we were able to identify a number of allelic differences between the original individual used in the IRGSP effort and the two individuals used in the re-sequencing effort. The revised assembly, termed Os-Nipponbare-Reference-IRGSP-1.0, is now being used in updated releases of the Rice Annotation Project and the Michigan State University Rice Genome Annotation Project, thereby providing a unified set of pseudomolecules for the rice community. CONCLUSIONS:A revised, error-corrected, and validated assembly of the Nipponbare cultivar of rice was generated using optical map data, re-sequencing data, and manual curation that will facilitate on-going and future research in rice. Detection of polymorphisms between three different Nipponbare individuals highlights that allelic differences between individuals should be considered in diversity studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genome sequencing yields the sequence of many short snippets of DNA (reads) from a genome. Genome assembly attempts to reconstruct the original genome from which these reads were derived. This task is difficult due to gaps and errors in the sequencing data, repetitive sequence in the underlying genome, and heterozygosity. As a result, assembly errors are common. In the absence of a reference genome, these misassemblies may be identified by comparing the sequencing data to the assembly and looking for discrepancies between the two. Once identified, these misassemblies may be corrected, improving the quality of the assembled sequence. Although tools exist to identify and correct misassemblies using Illumina paired-end and mate-pair sequencing, no such tool yet exists that makes use of the long distance information of the large molecules provided by linked reads, such as those offered by the 10x Genomics Chromium platform. We have developed the tool Tigmint to address this gap. RESULTS:To demonstrate the effectiveness of Tigmint, we applied it to assemblies of a human genome using short reads assembled with ABySS 2.0 and other assemblers. Tigmint reduced the number of misassemblies identified by QUAST in the ABySS assembly by 216 (27%). While scaffolding with ARCS alone more than doubled the scaffold NGA50 of the assembly from 3 to 8 Mbp, the combination of Tigmint and ARCS improved the scaffold NGA50 of the assembly over five-fold to 16.4 Mbp. This notable improvement in contiguity highlights the utility of assembly correction in refining assemblies. We demonstrate the utility of Tigmint in correcting the assemblies of multiple tools, as well as in using Chromium reads to correct and scaffold assemblies of long single-molecule sequencing. CONCLUSIONS:Scaffolding an assembly that has been corrected with Tigmint yields a final assembly that is both more correct and substantially more contiguous than an assembly that has not been corrected. Using single-molecule sequencing in combination with linked reads enables a genome sequence assembly that achieves both a high sequence contiguity as well as high scaffold contiguity, a feat not currently achievable with either technology alone.
Project description:Whole genome sequence construction is becoming increasingly feasible because of advances in next generation sequencing (NGS), including increasing throughput and read length. By simply overlapping paired-end reads, we can obtain longer reads with higher accuracy, which can facilitate the assembly process. However, the influences of different library sizes and assembly methods on paired-end sequencing-based de novo assembly remain poorly understood.We used 250 bp Illumina Miseq paired-end reads of different library sizes generated from genomic DNA from Escherichia coli DH1 and Streptococcus parasanguinis FW213 to compare the assembly results of different library sizes and assembly approaches. Our data indicate that overlapping paired-end reads can increase read accuracy but sometimes cause insertion or deletions. Regarding genome assembly, merged reads only outcompete original paired-end reads when coverage depth is low, and larger libraries tend to yield better assembly results. These results imply that distance information is the most critical factor during assembly. Our results also indicate that when depth is sufficiently high, assembly from subsets can sometimes produce better results.In summary, this study provides systematic evaluations of de novo assembly from paired end sequencing data. Among the assembly strategies, we find that overlapping paired-end reads is not always beneficial for bacteria genome assembly and should be avoided or used with caution especially for genomes containing high fraction of repetitive sequences. Because increasing numbers of projects aim at bacteria genome sequencing, our study provides valuable suggestions for the field of genomic sequence construction.
Project description:Single-cell genome sequencing has the potential to allow the in-depth exploration of the vast genetic diversity found in uncultured microbes. We used the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus as a model system for addressing important challenges facing high-throughput whole genome amplification (WGA) and complete genome sequencing of individual cells.We describe a pipeline that enables single-cell WGA on hundreds of cells at a time while virtually eliminating non-target DNA from the reactions. We further developed a post-amplification normalization procedure that mitigates extreme variations in sequencing coverage associated with multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and demonstrated that the procedure increased sequencing efficiency and facilitated genome assembly. We report genome recovery as high as 99.6% with reference-guided assembly, and 95% with de novo assembly starting from a single cell. We also analyzed the impact of chimera formation during MDA on de novo assembly, and discuss strategies to minimize the presence of incorrectly joined regions in contigs.The methods describe in this paper will be useful for sequencing genomes of individual cells from a variety of samples.