Project description:Shigellosis, caused by Shigella boydii type 1, is understudied and underreported. For 3 years, GEMS study identified 5.4% of all Shigella as S. boydii. We showed the prevalent serotypes of S. boydii in Bangladesh and phage-based diagnosis of S. boydii type 1, a rapid and low-cost approach. Previously typed 793 clinical S. boydii strains were used for serotype distribution. Twenty-eight environmental water samples were collected for isolation of Shigella phages. Forty-eight serotypes of Shigella and other enteric bacteria were used for testing the susceptibility to phage MK-13. Electron microscopy, restriction enzyme analysis, whole genome sequencing (WGS), and annotation were performed for extensive characterization. S. boydii type 1 is the second most prevalent serotype among 20 serotypes of S. boydii in Bangladesh. We isolated a novel phage, MK-13, which specifically lyses S. boydii type 1, but doesn't lyse other 47 serotypes of Shigella or other enteric bacteria tested. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family and distinct from other phages indicated by electron microscopy and restriction enzyme analysis, respectively. MK-13 genome consists of 158 kbp of circularly permuted double-stranded DNA with G + C content of 49.45%, and encodes 211 open reading frames including four tRNA-coding regions. The genome has 98% identity with previously reported phage, ?SboM-AG3, reported to have a broader host range infecting most of the S. boydii and other species of Shigella tested. To our knowledge, MK-13 is the first phage reported to be used as a diagnostic marker to detect S. boydii type 1, especially in remote settings with limited laboratory infrastructure.
Project description:There are four bacterial species in the genus Shigella that cause shigellosis or dysentery. Shigella boydii is one of the least studied Shigella species but has been shown to be separated into three phylogenomic clades. Here, we report four complete reference sequences of the S. boydii phylogenomic clades.
Project description:Shigella strains are in reality clones of Escherichia coli and are believed to have emerged relatively recently (G. M. Pupo, R. Lan, and P. R. Reeves, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:10567-10572, 2000). There are 33 O-antigen forms in these Shigella clones, of which 12 are identical to O antigens of other E. coli strains. We sequenced O-antigen gene clusters from Shigella boydii serotypes 4, 5, 6, and 9 and also studied the O53- and O79-antigen gene clusters of E. coli, encoding O antigens identical to those of S. boydii serotype 4 and S. boydii serotype 5, respectively. In both cases the S. boydii and E. coli O-antigen gene clusters have the same genes and organization. The clusters of both S. boydii 6 and S. boydii 9 O antigens have atypical features, with a functional insertion sequence and a wzx gene located in the orientation opposite to that of all other genes in S. boydii serotype 9 and an rmlC gene located away from other rml genes in S. boydii serotype 6. Sequences of O-antigen gene clusters from another three Shigella clones have been published, and two of them also have abnormal structures, with either the entire cluster or one gene being located on a plasmid in Shigella sonnei or Shigella dysenteriae, respectively. It appears that a high proportion of clusters coding for O antigens specific to Shigella clones have atypical features, perhaps indicating recent formation of these gene clusters.
Project description:Shigella is an important human pathogen. It is generally agreed that Shigella and Escherichia coli constitute a single species; the only exception is Shigella boydii type 13, which is more distantly related to E. coli and other Shigella forms and seems to represent another species. This gives S. boydii type 13 an important status in evolution. O antigen is the polysaccharide part of the lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and plays an important role in pathogenicity. The chemical structure and genetic organization of the S. boydii type 13 O antigen were investigated. The O polysaccharide was found to be acid labile owing to the presence of a glycosyl phosphate linkage in the main chain. The structure of the linear pentasaccharide phosphate repeating unit (O unit) was established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including two-dimensional COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, and H-detected 1H, 13C and 1H, 31P HMQC experiments, along with chemical methods. The O antigen gene cluster of S. boydii type 13 was located and sequenced. Genes for synthesis of UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-glucose and genes that encode putative sugar transferases, O unit flippase, and O antigen polymerase were identified. Seven genes were found to be specific to S. boydii type 13. The S. boydii type 13 O antigen gene cluster has higher levels of sequence similarity with Vibrio cholerae gene clusters and may be evolutionarily related to these gene clusters.
Project description:A novel colicin, designated colicin U, was found in two Shigella boydii strains of serovars 1 and 8. Colicin U was active against bacterial strains of the genera Escherichia and Shigella. Plasmid pColU (7.3 kb) of the colicinogenic strain S. boydii M592 (serovar 8) was sequenced, and three colicin genes were identified. The colicin U activity gene, cua, encodes a protein of 619 amino acids (Mr, 66,289); the immunity gene, cui, encodes a protein of 174 amino acids (Mr, 20,688); and the lytic protein gene, cul, encodes a polypeptide of 45 amino acids (Mr, 4,672). Colicin U displays sequence similarities to various colicins. The N-terminal sequence of 130 amino acids has 54% identity to the N-terminal sequence of bacteriocin 28b produced by Serratia marcescens. Furthermore, the N-terminal 36 amino acids have striking sequence identity (83%) to colicin A. Although the C-terminal pore-forming sequence of colicin U shows the highest degree of identity (73%) to the pore-forming C-terminal sequence of colicin B, the immunity protein, which interacts with the same region, displays a higher degree of sequence similarity to the immunity protein of colicin A (45%) than to the immunity protein of colicin B (30.5%). Immunity specificity is probably conferred by a short sequence from residues 571 to residue 599 of colicin U; this sequence is not similar to that of colicin B. We showed that binding of colicin U to sensitive cells is mediated by the OmpA protein, the OmpF porin, and core lipopolysaccharide. Uptake of colicin U was dependent on the TolA, -B, -Q, and -R proteins. pColU is homologous to plasmid pSB41 (4.1 kb) except for the colicin genes on pColU. pSB41 and pColU coexist in S. boydii strains and can be cotransformed into Escherichia coli, and both plasmids are homologous to pColE1.
Project description:Comparison of the O antigens of Shigella boydii types 10 and 6 by chemical analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that their structures are similar, with the only difference being the presence or absence of d-ribofuranose, which is the immunodominant sugar in S. boydii type 10. In S. boydii type 6, a residue previously reported as alpha-d-GlcpA, was shown to be beta-d-GlcpA as in S. boydii type 10. S. boydii types 10 and 6 are reported not to cross-react serologically, and the role of d-ribofuranose in the specificity of S. boydii was confirmed by making a mutant of type 10 that lacked d-ribofuranose. However, S. boydii type 11, which has a d-ribofuranose but with different linkage does show cross-reaction with type 10. The O-antigen gene loci of S. boydii types 10 and 6 were shown to be virtually identical except that orf8 (wbaM), which was confirmed as the ribofuranosyltransferase gene, is interrupted by IS629 in type 6. Therefore, it is proposed that the O-antigen gene cluster of S. boydii type 6 was derived from type 10 by an IS element insertion.
Project description:In Shigella boydii 0-1392, genes encoding the synthesis and transport of the hydroxamate siderophore aerobactin are located within a 21-kb iron transport island between lysU and the pheU tRNA gene. DNA sequence analysis of the S. boydii 0-1392 island, designated SHI-3 for Shigella island 3, revealed a conserved aerobactin operon associated with a P4 prophage-like integrase gene and numerous insertion sequences (IS). SHI-3 is present at the pheU tRNA locus in some S. boydii isolates but not in others. The map locations of the aerobactin genes vary among closely related species. The association of the aerobactin operon with phage genes and mobile elements and its presence at different locations within the genomes of enteric pathogens suggest that these virulence-enhancing genes may have been acquired by bacteriophage integration or IS element-mediated transposition. An S. boydii aerobactin synthesis mutant, 0-1392 iucB, was constructed and was similar to the wild type in tissue culture assays of invasion and intercellular spread.
Project description:Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes watery diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis. In this study, we identified StcE, a secreted zinc metalloprotease that contributes to intimate adherence of EHEC to host cells, in culture supernatants of atypical Shigella boydii 13 (Shigella B13) strains. Further examination of the Shigella B13 strains revealed that this cluster of pathogens does not invade but forms pedestals on HEp-2 cells similar to EHEC and enteropathogenic E. coli. This study also demonstrates that atypical Shigella B13 strains are more closely related to attaching and effacing E. coli and that their evolution recapitulates the progression from ancestral E. coli to EHEC.