Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To investigate the effects of the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and to further shed light on the underlying mechanisms of the actions of the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction.<h4>Methods</h4>Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) content was determined and liver inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated. Intrahepatocellular malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase contents were determined using commercially available kits Furthermore, ?-SMA expression in liver tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry and LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting assays.<h4>Results</h4>Mice receiving the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction by gastric lavage had significantly lower plasma ALT content and markedly higher hepatic superoxide dismutase activity than mice receiving the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Furthermore, the decoction aborted MCD-induced increase in liver malondialdehyde content. Immunohistochemistry showed that the decoction suppressed hepatic ?-SMA expression. Our transmission electronic microscopy revealed that the decoction markedly reduced the number of autophagosomes and immunoblotting assays showed that the decoction caused a dose-dependent decrease in LC3-II in hepatic tissues.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The Alisma and Rhizoma decoction lessens NASH-associated liver injuries by modulating oxidative stress and autophagy in hepatocytes of mice fed with MCD.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. Alisma orientale Juzepzuk is a traditional medicinal herb for diuretics, diabetes, hepatitis, and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of the tuber of Alisma orientale (MEAO) against ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo. MEAO inhibited the tunicamycin-induced increase in luciferase activity of ER stress-reporter constructs containing ER stress response element and ATF6 response element. MEAO significantly inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress marker expression including GRP78, CHOP, and XBP-1 in tunicamycin-treated Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and the livers of tunicamycin-injected mice. It also inhibited tunicamycin-induced accumulation of cellular triglyceride. Similar observations were made under physiological ER stress conditions such as in palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells and the livers of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. MEAO repressed hepatic lipogenic gene expression in PA-treated HepG2 cells and the livers of HFD obese mice. Furthermore, MEAO repressed very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression and improved ApoB secretion in the livers of tunicamycin-injected mice or HFD obese mice as well as in tunicamycin or PA-treated HepG2 cells. Alismol, a guaiane-type sesquiterpenes in Alisma orientale, inhibited GRP78 expression in tunicamycin-treated HepG2 cells. In conclusion, MEAO attenuates ER stress and prevents hepatic steatosis pathogenesis via inhibition of expression of the hepatic lipogenic genes and VLDLR, and enhancement of ApoB secretion.
Project description:Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep (A. orientale) is a traditional herb that is often used to treat disease including edema and hyperlipidemia. However, the molecular mechanism by which Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep exerts its hypolipidemic effects remains unclear. In this study, a diabetic rat model was established by feeding a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with a low-dose streptozotocin injection (HFS). Then the rats were treated with an A. orientale water extract (AOW), an A. orientale ethanolic extract (AOE) or metform (MET). The gut microflora and liver transcriptome were analyzed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry was employed to analyze the major compounds in the AOE. The results showed that the serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in rats of the AOE group (2.10 g/kg/day, 14 days) were significantly lower than those in the HFS group (p<0.01). Moreover, AOE treatment altered the gut microecology, particularly modulating the relative abundance of gut microflora involved in lipid metabolism compared with the HFS group. Furthermore, compared with the HFS group, the mRNA expression levels of Fam13a, Mapk7, Mpp7, Chac1, Insig1, Mcpt10, Noct, Greb1l, Fabp12 and Hba-a3 were upregulated after the administration of AOE. In contrast, the mRNA expression levels of Lox, Mybl1, Arrdc3, Cyp4a2, Krt20, Vxn, Ggt1, Nr1d1 and S100a9 were downregulated. Moreover, AOE treatment for two weeks markedly promoted the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae (p = 0.0013). The triterpenoids contents in AOE were alisol A, alisol A 24-acetate, alisol B, alisol B 23-acetate, alisol C 23-acetate, alisol F, alisol F 24-acetate, and alisol G. Our findings above illustrated that the hypolipidemic effect of the triterpenoids of A. orientale is mediated mainly through alteration of the gut microecology and the regulation of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, especially Insig1.
Project description:THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 11?-hydr-oxy-24,25-ep-oxy-3,16-oxo-protost-13?(17)-en-23-yl acetate], C(32)H(48)O(6), a protostane-type triterpenoid, was isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine alismatis rhizoma (the rhizome of Alisma orientalis Juzep). The mol-ecule contains four trans-fused rings, viz. three six-membered and one five-membered ring. Two of the six-membered rings have slightly distorted half-chair conformations, while the third exhibits a chair conformation. The five-membered ring is almost planar. An inter-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bond between the hydr-oxy and ep-oxy groups and intra- and intermolecular C-H?O hydrogen bonds are observed.
Project description:Twenty-one protostane-type triterpenoids with diverse structures, including nine new compounds (1-9), were isolated from the of Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn. Structurally, alisolides A‒F (1-6), composed of an oxole group coupled to a five-membered ring, represent unusual C-17 spirost protostane-type triterpenoids. Alisolide H (8) is a novel triterpenoid with an unreported endoperoxide bridge. Alisolide I (9) represents the first example of 23,24-acetal triterpenoid. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, wherein the absolute configurations of 4‒6, 8 were further confirmed by the Mo2(OAc)4-induced ECD method. Furthermore, all isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in Caco-2 cells, and all the compounds showed remarkable inhibitory activities, with IC50 values in the range of 0.76-38.20 μmol/L.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, its unrevealed mechanism and complicated comorbidities have led to no specific medication, except for weight loss and lifestyle modification. Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep (A. orientale, Alismataceae) has been increasingly reported on therapeutic effects of A. orientale against NAFLD and metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Therefore, this study aimed to review the preclinical efficacy of A. orientale and its chemical constituents including Alisol A 24-acetate, Alisol B 23-acetate, Alisol F, and Alismol against NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. A. orientale prevented hepatic triglyceride accumulation through suppressing de novo lipogenesis and increasing lipid export. In addition, it controlled oxidative stress markers, lipoapoptosis, liver injury panels, and inflammatory and fibrotic mediators, eventually influencing steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. Moreover, it exhibited pharmacological activities against hyperlipidemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia as well as appetite. These biological actions of A. orientale might contribute to adiponectin activation or a role as a farnesoid X receptor agonist. In particular, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate could be expected as main compounds. Taken together, A. orientale might be an effective candidate agent for the treatment of NAFLD and its comorbidities, although further assessment of its standardization, safety test, and clinical trials is consistently required.
Project description:Protostane triterpenes, which are found in Alisma orientale, are tetracyclic triterpenes with distinctive pharmacological activities. The natural distribution of protostane triterpenes is limited mainly to members of the botanical family Alismataceae. Squalene epoxidase (SE) is the key rate-limiting enzyme in triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, we report the characterization of two SEs from A. orientale. AoSE1 and AoSE2 were expressed as fusion proteins in E. coli, and the purified proteins were used in functional research. In vitro enzyme assays showed that AoSE1 and AoSE2 catalyze the formation of oxidosqualene from squalene. Immunoassays revealed that the tubers contain the highest levels of AoSE1 and AoSE2. After MeJA induction, which is the main elicitor of triterpene biosynthesis, the contents of 2,3-oxidosqualene and alisol B 23-acetate increased by 1.96- and 2.53-fold, respectively. In addition, the expression of both AoSE proteins was significantly increased at four days after MeJA treatment. The contents of 2,3-oxidosqualene and alisol B 23-acetate were also positively correlated with AoSEs expression at different times after MeJA treatment. These results suggest that AoSE1 and AoSE2 are the key regulatory points in protostane triterpenes biosynthesis, and that MeJA regulates the biosynthesis of these compounds by increasing the expression of AoSE1 and AoSE2.