Project description:A newly isolated bacterial strain SHJ was found to be capable of degrading diethyl phthalate (DEP) very efficiently. Its growth characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence were analyzed. Its whole genome was also sequenced. Strain SHJ was identified as Sphingobium yanoikuyae SHJ.
Project description:Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary.
Project description:Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 is an efficient carbazole-degrading strain. Carbazole-degrading genes are accompanied on both sides by two copies of IS6100 elements. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of strain XLDN2-5, which may provide important clues as to how it recruited exogenous genes to establish pathways to degrade the xenobiotics.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Microbial oxidative degradation is a potential way of removing pollutants such as heterocycles from the environment. During this process, reactive oxygen species or other oxidants are inevitably produced, and may cause damage to DNA, proteins, and membranes, thereby decreasing the degradation rate. Carotenoids can serve as membrane-integrated antioxidants, protecting cells from oxidative stress. FINDINGS: Several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were cloned and characterized from a carbazole-degrading bacterium Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5. In addition, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid synthesized by strain XLDN2-5 was identified as zeaxanthin that was synthesized from ?-carotene through ?-cryptoxanthin. The amounts of zeaxanthin and hydrogen peroxide produced were significantly and simultaneously enhanced during the biodegradation of heterocycles (carbazole < carbazole + benzothiophene < carbazole + dibenzothiophene). These higher production levels were consistent with the transcriptional increase of the gene encoding phytoene desaturase, one of the key enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 can enhance the synthesis of zeaxanthin, one of the carotenoids, which may modulate membrane fluidity and defense against intracellular oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the positive role of carotenoids in the biodegradation of heterocycles, while elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the Sphingobium genus.
Project description:Background: Green micro-alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a Chlorophyte), can be cultured in the laboratory heterotrophically or photo-heterotrophically in Tris- Phosphate- Acetate (TAP) medium, which contains acetate as the carbon source. Chlamydomonas can convert acetate in the TAP medium to glucose via the glyoxylate cycle, a pathway present in many microbes and higher plants. A novel bacterial strain, CC4533, was isolated from a contaminated TAP agar medium culture plate of a Chlamydomonas wild type strain. In this article, we present our research on the isolation, and biochemical and molecular characterizations of CC4533. Methods: We conducted several microbiological tests and spectrophotometric analyses to biochemically characterize CC4533. The 16S rRNA gene of CC4533 was partially sequenced for taxonomic identification. We monitored the growth of CC4533 on Tris-Phosphate (TP) agar medium (lacks a carbon source) containing different sugars, aromatic compounds and saturated hydrocarbons, to see if CC4533 can use these chemicals as the sole source of carbon. Results: CC4533 is a Gram-negative, non-enteric yellow pigmented, aerobic, mesophilic bacillus. It is alpha-hemolytic and oxidase-positive. CC4533 can ferment glucose, sucrose and lactose, is starch hydrolysis-negative, resistant to penicillin, polymyxin B and chloramphenicol. CC4533 is sensitive to neomycin. Preliminary spectrophotometric analyses indicate that CC4533 produces b-carotenes. NCBI-BLAST analyses of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of CC4533 show 99.55% DNA sequence identity to that of Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain PR86 and S. yanoikuyae strain NRB095. CC4533 can use cyclo-chloroalkanes, saturated hydrocarbons present in car motor oil, polyhydroxyalkanoate, and mono- and poly-cyclic aromatic compounds, as sole carbon sources for growth. Conclusions: Taxonomically, CC4533 is very closely related to the alpha-proteobacterium S. yanoikuyae, whose genome has been sequenced. Future research is needed to probe the potential of CC4533 for environmental bioremediation. Whole genome sequencing of CC4533 will confirm if it is a novel strain of S. yanoikuyae or a new Sphingobium species.
Project description:We report the isolation and characterization of three new cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: CYP101J2, CYP101J3, and CYP101J4. These P450s were derived from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B2, a strain that was isolated from activated sludge based on its ability to fully mineralize 1,8-cineole. Genome sequencing of this strain in combination with purification of native 1,8-cineole-binding proteins enabled identification of 1,8-cineole-binding P450s. The P450 enzymes were cloned, heterologously expressed (N-terminally His<sub>6</sub> tagged) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified, and spectroscopically characterized. Recombinant whole-cell biotransformation in E. coli demonstrated that all three P450s hydroxylate 1,8-cineole using electron transport partners from E. coli to yield a product putatively identified as (1S)-2?-hydroxy-1,8-cineole or (1R)-6?-hydroxy-1,8-cineole. The new P450s belong to the CYP101 family and share 47% and 44% identity with other 1,8-cineole-hydroxylating members found in Novosphingobium aromaticivorans and Pseudomonas putida Compared to P450<sub>cin</sub> (CYP176A1), a 1,8-cineole-hydroxylating P450 from Citrobacter braakii, these enzymes share less than 30% amino acid sequence identity and hydroxylate 1,8-cineole in a different orientation. Expansion of the enzyme toolbox for modification of 1,8-cineole creates a starting point for use of hydroxylated derivatives in a range of industrial applications.<h4>Importance</h4>CYP101J2, CYP101J3, and CYP101J4 are cytochrome P450 monooxygenases from S. yanoikuyae B2 that hydroxylate the monoterpenoid 1,8-cineole. These enzymes not only play an important role in microbial degradation of this plant-based chemical but also provide an interesting route to synthesize oxygenated 1,8-cineole derivatives for applications as natural flavor and fragrance precursors or incorporation into polymers. The P450 cytochromes also provide an interesting basis from which to compare other enzymes with a similar function and expand the CYP101 family. This could eventually provide enough bacterial parental enzymes with similar amino acid sequences to enable in vitro evolution via DNA shuffling.
Project description:A bacterium capable of utilizing dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-<i>n</i>-butyl phthalate (DBP), and diisobuthyl phthalate (DIBP) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from shallow aquifer sediments. The strain was identified as <i>Sphingobium yanoikuyae</i> SHJ based on morphological characteristics, 16S rDNA gene phylogeny, and whole genome average nucleotide identity (ANI). The degradation half-life of DBP with substrate concentration of 8.5 and 50.0 mg/L by strain SHJ was 99.7 and 101.4 hours, respectively. The optimum degradation rate of DBP by SHJ was observed at 30°C and weak alkaline (pH 7.5). Genome sequence of the strain SHJ showed a circular chromosome and additional two circular plasmids with whole genome size of 5,669,383 bp and GC content of 64.23%. Functional annotation of SHJ revealed a total of 5,402 genes, with 5,183 protein-encoding genes, 143 pseudogenes, and 76 noncoding RNA genes. Based on genome annotation, 44 genes were identified to be involved in PAEs hydrolysis potentially. Besides, a region with size of about 6.9 kb comprised of seven ORFs, which is located on the smaller plasmid pSES189, was presumed to be responsible for the biodegradation of phthalate. These results provide insights into the genetic basis of DBP biodegradation in this strain.