Project description:Protein-coding genes are considered to be a dominant component of the eukaryotic transcriptome; however, many studies have shown that intergenic, non-coding transcripts also play an important role. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were found to play a vital role in human and Arabidopsis. However, lincRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in woody plants, especially Populus trichocarpa (P. trichocarpa). A large set of Populus RNA-Seq data were examined with high sequencing depth under control and drought conditions and a total of 2542 lincRNA candidates were identified. In total, 51 lincRNAs and 20 lincRNAs were identified as putative targets and target mimics of known Populus miRNAs, respectively. A total of 504 lincRNAs were found to be drought responsive, eight of which were confirmed by RT-qPCR. These findings provide a comprehensive view of Populus lincRNAs, which will enable in-depth functional analysis.
Project description:Populus trichocarpa is an important woody model organism whose entire genome has been sequenced. This resource has facilitated the annotation of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short non-coding RNAs with critical regulatory functions. However, despite their developmental importance, P. trichocarpa miRNAs have yet to be annotated from numerous important tissues. Here we significantly expand the breadth of tissue sampling and sequencing depth for miRNA annotation in P. trichocarpa using high-throughput smallRNA (sRNA) sequencing. miRNA annotation was performed using three individual next-generation sRNA sequencing runs from separate leaves, xylem, and mechanically treated xylem, as well as a fourth run using a pooled sample containing vegetative apices, male flowers, female flowers, female apical buds, and male apical and lateral buds. A total of 276 miRNAs were identified from these datasets, including 155 previously unannotated miRNAs, most of which are P. trichocarpa specific. Importantly, we identified several xylem-enriched miRNAs predicted to target genes known to be important in secondary growth, including the critical reaction wood enzyme xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase and vascular-related transcription factors. This study provides a thorough genome-wide annotation of miRNAs in P. trichocarpa through deep sRNA sequencing from diverse tissue sets. Our data significantly expands the P. trichocarpa miRNA repertoire, which will facilitate a broad range of research in this major model system.
Project description:The ages and sizes of a sex-determination region (SDR) are difficult to determine in non-model species. Due to the lack of recombination and enrichment of repetitive elements in SDRs, the quality of assembly with short sequencing reads is universally low. Unique features present in the SDRs help provide clues about how SDRs are established and how they evolve in the absence of recombination. Several Populus species have been reported with a male heterogametic configuration of sex (XX/XY system) mapped on chromosome 19, but the exact location of the SDR has been inconsistent among species, and thus far, none of these SDRs has been fully assembled in a genomic context. Here we identify the Y-SDR from a Y-linked contig directly from a long-read PacBio assembly of a Populus trichocarpa male individual. We also identified homologous gene sequences in the SDR of P. trichocarpa and the SDR of the W chromosome in Salix purpurea. We show that inverted repeats (IRs) found in the Y-SDR and the W-SDR are lineage-specific. We hypothesize that, although the two IRs are derived from the same orthologous gene within each species, they likely have independent evolutionary histories. Furthermore, the truncated inverted repeats in P. trichocarpa may code for small RNAs that target the homologous gene for RNA-directed DNA methylation. These findings support the hypothesis that diverse sex-determining systems may be achieved through similar evolutionary pathways, thereby providing a possible mechanism to explain the lability of sex-determination systems in plants in general.
Project description:A microarray analysis of whole-genome gene expression in leaves was carried out in a (Populus trichocarpa X Populus deltoides) X Populus deltoides pseudo-backcross pedigree. Genetic variation in gene expression was quantified for 55,793 predicted gene models based on a single probe per gene. Resultant data contributed to the analysis of the genetic architecture of gene expression in leaves of Populus. Overall design: Data include one biological replicate of 183 individuals segregating from a pseudo-backcross pedigree of (Populus trichocarpa X Populus deltoides) X Populus deltoides analyzed for gene expression (GE) in roots using one probe per gene for 55793 independent gene models (probes E_POPLARSxxxxxPxxxxx) and single feature sequence polymorphism (SFP) using one probe per gene for 12084 independent gene models (probes G_POPLARSxxxxxPxxxxx). GE and SFP probes were selected from 6-7 probes per gene previously tested in a pilot study of the two parent trees of the cross (Populus deltoides X Populus trichocarpa)
Project description:Illumina HiSeq2000 technology was used to generate mRNA profiles from the ectomycorrhizal fungi Laccaria bicolor colonizing roots of Populus trichocarpa. Samples were taken after 3 months of contact in order to identify mycorrhiza-regulated transcripts. 100bp reads were generated and aligned to the Populus trichocarpa (http://www.phytozome.net/poplar.php) reference genome. Overall design: mRNA profiles from Populus trichocarpa roots colonized by Laccaria bicolor for three months as well as from control roots were generated by using one lane of 1X100bp Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing per sample.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies are powerful tools to elucidate the genome-to-phenome relationship. In order to explain most of the observed heritability of a phenotypic trait, a sufficient number of individuals and a large set of genetic variants must be examined. The development of high-throughput technologies and cost-efficient resequencing of complete genomes have enabled the genome-wide identification of genetic variation at large scale. As such, almost all existing genetic variation becomes available, and it is now possible to identify rare genetic variants in a population sample. Rare genetic variants that were usually filtered out in most genetic association studies are the most numerous genetic variations across genomes and hold great potential to explain a significant part of the missing heritability observed in association studies. Rare genetic variants must be identified with high confidence, as they can easily be confounded with sequencing errors. In this study, we used a pre-filtered data set of 1,014 pure Populus trichocarpa entire genomes to identify rare and common small genetic variants across individual genomes. We compared variant calls between Platypus and HaplotypeCaller pipelines, and we further applied strict quality filters for improved genetic variant identification. Finally, we only retained genetic variants that were identified by both variant callers increasing calling confidence. Based on these shared variants and after stringent quality filtering, we found high genomic diversity in P. trichocarpa germplasm, with 7.4 million small genetic variants. Importantly, 377k non-synonymous variants (5% of the total) were uncovered. We highlight the importance of genomic diversity and the potential of rare defective genetic variants in explaining a significant portion of P. trichocarpa's phenotypic variability in association genetics. The ultimate goal is to associate both rare and common alleles with poplar's wood quality traits to support selective breeding for an improved bioenergy feedstock.
Project description:The DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (Dof) genes are ubiquitous in many plant species and are especial transcription regulators that participate in plant growth, development and various procedures, including biotic and abiotic stress reactions. In this study, we identified 41 PtrDof members from Populus trichocarpa genomes and classified them into four groups. The conserved motifs and gene structures of some PtrDof genes belonging to the same subgroup were almost the same. The 41 PtrDof genes were dispersed on 18 of the 19 Populus chromosomes. Many key stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements were discovered in the PtrDof gene promoter regions. Consequently, we undertook expression profiling of the PtrDof genes in leaves and roots in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid. A total of seven genes (PtrDof14, 16, 25, 27, 28, 37 and 39) in the Populus Dof gene family were consistently upregulated at point in all time in the leaves and roots under osmotic and abscisic acid (ABA) stress. We observed that 12 PtrDof genes could be targeted by 15 miRNAs. Moreover, we mapped the cleavage site in PtrDof30 using the 5'RLM-RACE. The results showed that PtrDofs may have a role in resistance to abiotic stress in Populus trichocarpa.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SPLs, a family of transcription factors specific to plants, play vital roles in plant growth and development through regulation of various physiological and biochemical processes. Although Populus trichocarpa is a model forest tree, the PtSPL gene family has not been systematically studied. RESULTS: Here we report the identification of 28 full-length PtSPLs, which distribute on 14 P. trichocarpa chromosomes. Based on the phylogenetic relationships of SPLs in P. trichocarpa and Arabidopsis, plant SPLs can be classified into 6 groups. Each group contains at least a PtSPL and an AtSPL. The N-terminal zinc finger 1 (Zn1) of SBP domain in group 6 SPLs has four cysteine residues (CCCC-type), while Zn1 of SPLs in the other groups mainly contains three cysteine and one histidine residues (C2HC-type). Comparative analyses of gene structures, conserved motifs and expression patterns of PtSPLs and AtSPLs revealed the conservation of plant SPLs within a group, whereas among groups, the P. trichocarpa and Arabidopsis SPLs were significantly different. Various conserved motifs were identified in PtSPLs but not found in AtSPLs, suggesting the diversity of plant SPLs. A total of 11 pairs of intrachromosome-duplicated PtSPLs were identified, suggesting the importance of gene duplication in SPL gene expansion in P. trichocarpa. In addition, 18 of the 28 PtSPLs, belonging to G1, G2 and G5, were found to be targets of miR156. Consistently, all of the AtSPLs in these groups are regulated by miR156. It suggests the conservation of miR156-mediated posttranscriptional regulation in plants. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 28 full-length SPLs were identified from the whole genome sequence of P. trichocarpa. Through comprehensive analyses of gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal locations, conserved motifs, expression patterns and miR156-mediated posttranscriptional regulation, the PtSPL gene family was characterized. Our results provide useful information for evolution and biological function of plant SPLs.
Project description:A microarray analysis of whole-genome gene expression in roots was carried out in a (Populus trichocarpa X Populus deltoides) X Populus deltoides pseudo-backcross pedigree. Genetic variation in gene expression was quantified for 55,793 predicted gene models based on a single probe per gene. Resultant data contributed to the analysis of the genetic architecture of gene expression in roots of Populus. Overall design: Data include one biological replicate of 163 individuals segregating from a pseudo-backcross pedigree of (Populus trichocarpa X Populus deltoides) X Populus deltoides analyzed for gene expression (GE) in roots using one probe per gene for 55793 independent gene models (probes E_POPLARSxxxxxPxxxxx) and single feature sequence polymorphism (SFP) using one probe per gene for 12084 independent gene models (probes G_POPLARSxxxxxPxxxxx). GE and SFP probes were selected from 6-7 probes per gene previously tested in a pilot study of the two parent trees of the cross (Populus deltoides X Populus trichocarpa)
Project description:The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) transcription factor family plays an important role in normal plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. In this study, we identified seven CAMTA genes across the whole genome of Populus trichocarpa and analyzed the expression patterns of PtCAMTAs in the root and leaf tissues. Promoter cis-element analysis indicated that most CAMTA genes contained stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated indicated that PtCAMTAs were induced by mannitol, NaCl, cold stress, pathogenic infection with A. alternata, and phytohormone treatments with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate. We analyzed the expression of homologous genes between P. trichocarpa and P. ussuriensis and alternative splicing forms of PtCAMTA genes under cold stress. We also performed a network interaction analysis for PtCAMTA proteins to predict their interactions and associations. The results of the present study serve as a basis for future functional studies on the Populus CAMTA family.