Project description:Classical type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) are required for antiviral and antitumor immunity, which necessitates an understanding of their development. Development of the cDC1 progenitor requires an E-protein-dependent enhancer located 41?kilobases downstream of the transcription start site of the transcription factor Irf8 (+41-kb Irf8 enhancer), but its maturation instead requires the Batf3-dependent +32-kb Irf8 enhancer. To understand this switch, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of the common dendritic cell progenitor (CDP) and identified a cluster of cells that expressed transcription factors that influence cDC1 development, such as Nfil3, Id2 and Zeb2. Genetic epistasis among these factors revealed that Nfil3 expression is required for the transition from Zeb2hi and Id2lo CDPs to Zeb2lo and Id2hi CDPs, which represent the earliest committed cDC1 progenitors. This genetic circuit blocks E-protein activity to exclude plasmacytoid dendritic cell potential and explains the switch in Irf8 enhancer usage during cDC1 development.
Project description:Classical type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) are required for anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity, which has motivated a need to understand their development. The development of the cDC1 progentitor requires an E protein–dependent enhancer located 41 kilobases downstream of the transcription start site of the transcription factor IRF8 (+41 kb Irf8 enhancer) but its maturation instead requires the BATF3-dependent +32 kb Irf8 enhancer. To understand this switch, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of the common dendritic cell progenitor (CDP) and identified a cluster of cells that expressed transcription factors that influence cDC1 development, such as Nfil3, Id2, and Zeb2. Genetic epistasis among these factors revealed that Nfil3 expression is required for the transition from Zeb2hi and Id2lo CDPs to Zeb2lo and Id2hi CDPs, which represent the earliest committed cDC1 progenitors. This genetic circuit blocks E protein activity to exclude plasmacytoid DC potential and explains the switch in Irf8 enhancer usage during cDC1 development. Overall design: To develop a comprehensive profile of heterogeneity within the CDP, we employed high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of 10,000 CDPs.
Project description:The transcription factor E4bp4 (Nfil3) is essential for natural killer (NK) cell production. Here, we show that E4bp4 is required at the NK lineage commitment point when NK progenitors develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and that E4bp4 must be expressed at the CLP stage for differentiation toward the NK lineage to occur. To elucidate the mechanism by which E4bp4 promotes NK development, we identified a central core of transcription factors that can rescue NK production from E4bp4(-/-) progenitors, suggesting that they act downstream of E4bp4. Among these were Eomes and Id2, which are expressed later in development than E4bp4. E4bp4 binds directly to the regulatory regions of both Eomes and Id2, promoting their transcription. We propose that E4bp4 is required for commitment to the NK lineage and promotes NK development by directly regulating the expression of the downstream transcription factors Eomes and Id2.
Project description:Induction of the transcription factor Irf8 in the common dendritic cell progenitor (CDP) is required for classical type 1 dendritic cell (cDC1) fate specification, but the mechanisms controlling this induction are unclear. In the present study Irf8 enhancers were identified via chromatin profiling of dendritic cells and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was used to assess their roles in Irf8 regulation. An enhancer 32?kilobases (kb) downstream of the Irf8 transcriptional start site (+32-kb Irf8) that was active in mature cDC1s was required for the development of this lineage, but not for its specification. Instead, a +41-kb Irf8 enhancer, previously thought to be active only in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, was found to also be transiently accessible in cDC1 progenitors, and deleting this enhancer prevented the induction of Irf8 in CDPs and abolished cDC1 specification. Thus, cryptic activation of the +41-kb Irf8 enhancer in dendritic cell progenitors is responsible for cDC1 fate specification.
Project description:We used microarrays to determine whether cDC1s from the two double KO are bona fide cDC1s, and what are the transcriptional changes within these cDC1s. Overall design: cDC1 were sorted from mouse spleen for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain gene expression signatures for cDC1s from various genotypes.
Project description:Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs [pDCs]) develop from pre-pDCs, whereas two lineages of conventional DCs (cDCs; cDC1s and cDC2s) develop from lineage-committed pre-cDCs. Several transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in regulating the development of pDCs (E2-2 and Id2) and cDC1s (Irf8, Id2, and Batf3); however, those required for the early commitment of pre-cDCs toward the cDC2 lineage are unknown. Here, we identify the TF zinc finger E box-binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) to play a crucial role in regulating DC development. Zeb2 was expressed from the pre-pDC and pre-cDC stage onward and highly expressed in mature pDCs and cDC2s. Mice conditionally lacking Zeb2 in CD11c(+) cells had a cell-intrinsic reduction in pDCs and cDC2s, coupled with an increase in cDC1s. Conversely, mice in which CD11c(+) cells overexpressed Zeb2 displayed a reduction in cDC1s. This was accompanied by altered expression of Id2, which was up-regulated in cDC2s and pDCs from conditional knockout mice. Zeb2 chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed Id2 to be a direct target of Zeb2. Thus, we conclude that Zeb2 regulates commitment to both the cDC2 and pDC lineages through repression of Id2.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous cell populations represented by different subtypes, each varying in terms of gene expression patterns and specific functions. Recent studies identified transcription factors essential for the development of different DC subtypes, yet molecular mechanisms for the developmental program and functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed and characterized a mouse DC progenitor-like cell line, designated DC9, from Irf8(-/-) bone marrow cells as a model for DC development and function. Expression of Irf8 in DC9 cells led to plasmacytoid DCs and CD8?(+) DC-like cells, with a concomitant increase in plasmacytoid DC- and CD8?(+) DC-specific gene transcripts and induction of type I IFNs and IL12p40 following TLR ligand stimulation. Irf8 expression in DC9 cells led to an increase in Id2 and Batf3 transcript levels, transcription factors shown to be important for the development of CD8?(+) DCs. We show that, without Irf8, expression of Id2 and Batf3 was not sufficient for directing classical CD8?(+) DC development. When coexpressed with Irf8, Batf3 and Id2 had a synergistic effect on classical CD8?(+) DC development. We demonstrate that Irf8 is upstream of Batf3 and Id2 in the classical CD8?(+) DC developmental program and define the hierarchical relationship of transcription factors important for classical CD8?(+) DC development.